57 terms

REVIEW - Chapter 6 - The Constitution and the New Republic

1787 - 1800
Mt. Vernon Conference
George Washington hosted this at his home in VA (1785); VA, MD, PA, and DE reps agreed that problems were serious enough with the Articles to prompt further discussions at a later meeting in Annapolis, MD, where the states might be represented
Annapolis Convention
A convention held in September 1786 to consider problems of trade and navigation, attended by five states and important because it issued the call to Congress and the states for what became the Constitutional Convention
Constitutional Convention
The meeting of all state delegates in 1787 in Philadelphia called to revise the Articles of Confederation. It instead designed a new plan of government, the US Constitution.
Framers of Constitution
Group of delegates who drafted the United States Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention in 1787.
James Madison
A member of the Continental Congress (1780-1783) and the Constitutional Convention (1787), he strongly supported ratification of the Constitution and was a contributor to The Federalist Papers (1787-1788), which argued the effectiveness of the proposed constitution
Alexander Hamilton
1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt in his Financial Plan.
Gouverneur Morris
Pennsylvania representative at the constitutional convention, he is credited with authoring large sections of the constitution, including the preamble
John Dickinson
Was another essential member in writing the constitution
checks and balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
Virginia Plan
Initial proposal at the Constitutional Convention made by the Virginia delegation for a strong central government with a bicameral legislature dominated by the big states.
New Jersey Plan
Opposite of the Virginia Plan, it proposed a single-chamber congress in which each state had one and equal vote. This created a conflict with representation between bigger states, who wanted control befitting their population, and smaller states, who didn't want to be bullied by larger states.
Great Compromise
Otherwise known as the Connecticut Plan; Compromise made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature and representation based on population in the other house
House of Representatives
the lower legislative house of the United States Congress
the upper house of the United States Congress
Three Fifths Compromise
Compromise between northern and southern states at the Constitutional Convention that three-fifths of the slave population would be counted for determining direct taxation and representation in the House of Representatives.
Commercial Compromise
Allowed Congress to regulate interstate and foreign commerce yet prohibited any tariffs on exported goods. Significance: This agreement incorporated the needs of both the Anti-Federalists and the Federalists to some degree.
electoral college system
System under which the president is elected; each state's electors = senators + representatives; this system was created because some delgates feared that too much democracy would lead to mob rule
Supporters of the Constitution that were led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. They firmly believed the national government should be strong. They didn't want the Bill of Rights because they felt citizens' rights were already well protected by the Constitution.
Led by Jefferson, they opposed the ratification of the Constitution because it gave more power to the federal government and less to the states, and because it did not ensure individual rights. Many wanted to keep the Articles of Confederation. They were instrumental in obtaining passage of the Bill of Rights as a prerequisite to ratification of the Constitution in several states. After the ratification of the Constitution, the Antifederalists regrouped as the Democratic-Republican (or simply Republican) party.
The Federalist Papers
This collection of essays by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison, explained the importance of a strong central government. It was published to convince New York to ratify the Constitution.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution, containing a list of individual rights and liberties, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press.
Legislative Branch
The branch of government that makes the laws.
Judicial Branch
The branch of government that interprets laws.
Executive Branch
The branch of government that carries out laws.
The legislature of the United States government
executive departments
Alex Hamilton became the Secretary of Treasury, Thomas jefferson became the Secretary of State, and Henry Knox became the Secretary of War. These made up the first Cabinet. (John Jay served as chief justice)
a group of advisers to the president
Henry Knox
In 1775 George Washington ordered him, the nation's first secreatry of war, to bring the British artillery back to the siege of Boston that was captured at Fort Ticonderoga.
Edmund Randolph
Served as U.S. Attorney General, and succeeded Jefferson as Secretary of State; resigned from office after being falsely accused of receiving money from France to influence Washington's administration against Great Britain, although the French government eventually cleared his name
Judiciary Act
A 1789 law that created the structure of the Supreme Court, which required one Chief Justice and 5 Associate justices and set up a system of district courts and circuit courts for the nation. Decisions made in these lower courts could be appealed to by the Supreme Court.
federal courts
the courts of the national government that deal with problems between states, with the constitution, and with laws made by congress
Supreme Court
The pinnacle of the American judicial system. The court ensures uniformity in interpreting national laws, resolves conflicts among states, and maintains national supremacy in law. It has both original jurisdiction and appellate jurisdiction, but unlike other federal courts, it controls its own agenda.
national debt
The U.S.'s (term) included domestic debt owed to soldiers and others who had not yet been paid for their Revolutionary War services, plus foreign debt to other countries which had helped the U.S. The federal government also assumed all the debts incurred by the states during the war. Hamilton's program planned to pay off these debts as one big debt.
infant industries
Hamilton proposed to protect the young nation's new and developing industries by imposing high tariffs on imported goods
national bank
Hamilton's big idea; fiercely opposed by Jefferson and Democratic-Rep. The bank would regulate money and draw investors; showed that the constitution could be construed in many a way.
Taxes on imports or exports
excise taxes
Taxes placed on manufactured products. This type of tax on whiskey helped raise revenue for Hamilton's program.
French Revolution
the revolution that began in 1789, overthrew the absolute monarchy of the Bourbons and the system of aristocratic privileges, and ended with Napoleon's overthrow of the Directory and seizure of power in 1799.
Proclamation of Neutrality
A formal announcement issued by President George Washington on April 22, 1793, declaring the United States a neutral nation in the conflict between Great Britain and France.
Citizen Genet Affair
the French minister to the United States, objected Washington's proclamation of neutrality and stated that the Americans should support the French People. was then removed from being diplomat for the French government, but still stayed in US.
Jay Treaty
1794 - It was signed in the hopes of settling the growing conflicts between the U.S. and Britain. It dealt with the Northwest posts and trade on the Mississippi River. It was unpopular with most Americans because it did not punish Britain for the attacks on neutral American ships. It was particularly unpopular with France, because the U.S. also accepted the British restrictions on the rights of neutrals.
Pinckney Treaty
1795 - Treaty between the U.S. and Spain which gave the U.S. the right to transport goods on the Mississippi river and to store goods in the Spanish port of New Orleans
right of deposit
the right for the American people to store their goods tax-free in Spanish warehouses in New Orleans and Mississippi
Battle of Fallen Timbers
battle between American and native American forces in 1794 over Ohio Territory that led to the defeat of the Native Americans
Whisky Rebellion
farmers objected violently to a tax on whisky. Washington eased out the rebellion quickly by sending 15,000 federal troops. It was a success because it was a bloodless outcome, instilling fear in the protesting farmers. This showed the power of the us government and sent a signal to other powers that America could take the reigns on their own country
Public Land Act
in 1796 established orderly procedures for dividing and selling federal lands at reasonable prices.
Federalist Era
1790s were dominated by two Federalist figures around which political parties formed: Hamilton and Jefferson; Hamilton's federalists supposed his financial programs (loose interpretation of Constitution but strong central government)
Democratic-Republican Party
political party led by Thomas Jefferson; it feared centralized political power, supported states' rights, opposed Hamilton's financial plan, and supported ties with France. It was heavily influenced by a agrarian interests in the southern states.
political parties
This was new in American government at the the time and they did not think that the institution of (term) would actually arise
Washington's Farewell Address
Upon retiring, Washington warned his Americans not to get involved in European affairs, not to make permanent alliances, not to form political parties and to avoid sectionalism.
Permanent Alliances
Washington warned against this in his farewell address among other things
Two Term Tradition
created by or originated from George Washington, basically every president would work for two years and then voluntarily resign, even though there were no laws that said that they had to resign at a specific time. This tradition was carried out until FDR
John Adams
He was the second president of the United States and a Federalist. He was responsible for passing the Alien and Sedition Acts. Prevented all out war with France after the XYZ Affair. His passing of the Alien and Sedition Acts severely hurt the popularity of the Federalist party and himself
XYZ Affair
An insult to the American delegation when they were supposed to be meeting French foreign minister, Talleyrand, but instead they were sent 3 officials Adams called "X,Y, and Z" that demanded $250,000 as a bribe to see Talleyrand. Severed relations between America and France
Alien and Sedition Acts
These consist of four laws passed by the Federalist Congress and signed by President Adams in 1798: the Naturalization Act, which increased the waiting period for an immigrant to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years; the Alien Act, which empowered the president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens; the Alien Enemy Act, which allowed for the arrest and deportation of citizens of countries at was with the US; and the Sedition Act, which made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government or its officials. The first 3 were enacted in response to the XYZ Affair, and were aimed at French and Irish immigrants, who were considered subversives. The Sedition Act was an attempt to stifle Democratic-Republican opposition, although only 25 people were ever arrested, and only 10 convicted, under the law. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which initiated the concept of "nullification" of federal laws were written in response to the Acts.
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
Response to the Alien and Sedition Acts. Stated that a state had the right to declare a law unconstiutional, or nullify a law, within its borders. These were written by Jefferson and Madison to resist the Alien and Sedition Acts
Revolution of 1800
Jefferson's election changed the direction of the government from Federalist to Democratic- Republican, so it was called a "revolution."