37 terms

African American English (AAE)

Omission of noun possessive
That's the woman's car.
AAE: That the woman car.
Omission of noun plural
He has two boxes of apples.
AAE: He got two box of apple.
Omission of third-person singular present-tense marker
She walks to school.
AAE: She walk to school
Omission of to be forms such as is, are
She is a nice lady.
AAE: She a nice lady.
Present tense is used regardless of person/number
They are having fun.
AAE: They is having fun.
Lack of person-number agreement with past & present forms of to be
You are playing ball.
AAE: You is playing ball.
Present-tense forms of auxiliary have omitted
I have been here for two hours.
AAE: I been here for two hours.
Past-tense endings omitted
He lived in California.
AAE: He live in California.
Past was used regardless of number and person
They were shopping.
AAE: They was shopping.
Multiple negatives (each additional negative form adds emphasis to the negative meaning)
We don't have any more.
AAE: We don't have no more.
None substituted for any
She doesn't want any.
AAE: She don't want none.
Perfective construction; been used to indicate that an action took place in the distant past
I had the mumps when I was 5.
AAE: I been had the mumps when I was 5.
Done combined with a past-tense form to indicate that an action was started & completed
He fixed the stove.
AAE: He done fixed the stove.
The form be used as the main verb
Today she is working.
AAE: Today she be working.
Distributive be used to indicate actions & events over time
He is often cheerful.
AAE: He be cheerful.
Pronoun used to restate the subject
My brother surprised me.
AAE: My brother, he surprise me
Them substituted for those
Those cars are antiques.
AAE: Them cars, they be antique.
Future tense is, are replaced by gonna
She is going to help us.
AAE: She gonna help us.
At used at the end of where questions
Where is the house?
AAE: Where is the house at?
Additional auxiliaries often used
I might have done it.
AAE: I might could have done it.
Does replaced by do
She does funny things.
AAE: She do funny things.
/l/ lessened or omitted
tool --> too'
/r/ lessened or omitted
door --> doah
f/voiceless th substitution at end or middle of word
teeth --> teef
t/voiceless th substitution in beginning of a word
think --> tink
d/vocied th substitution at beginning, middle of words
this --> dis
brother --> broder
v/voiced th substitution at the end of words
breathe --> breave
Consonant-cluster reduction
desk --> des
rest --> res
Differing syllable stress patterns
guitar --> GUItar
police --> POlice
Verbs ending in /k/ are changed
liked --> li-tid
walked --> wah-tid
Metathesis occurs
ask --> aks ("axe")
Devoicing of final voiced consonants
bed --> bet
rug --> ruk
Final consonants may be deleted
bad --> ba
good --> goo
i/e substitution
pen --> pin
ten --> tin
b/v substituation
valentine --> balentine
Diphthong reduction
find --> fahnd
oil --> ol
n/ng substitution
walking --> walkin