1. Which energy system can power an all-out effort from 3 to 15 seconds?
A) oxygen B) ATP-CP C) lactic acid D) NAD
2. Which energy system can extract energy from fat as well as glucose?
A) oxygen energy system B) ATP-CP energy system C) lactic acid energy system D) coenzymes
A) oxygen energy system
3. Which type of muscle fibers can maintain low-intensity muscular activities for prolonged periods of time?
A) fast twitch B) medium twitch C) slow twitch D) anaerobic twitch
C) slow twitch
4. Athletes with a high percentage of slow-twitch muscle fibers typically make better
A) sprinters B) marathoners C) weightlifters D) volleyball players
5. Which of the following is not a general recommendation for competitive athletes?
A) Consume adequate amounts of energy. B) Maintain adequate sport-specific percentages of lean body mass in proportion to body fat. C) Train frequently to prevent soreness. D) Maintain hydration status.
C) Train frequently to prevent soreness.
6. Pre-exercise meals should consist primarily of
A) carbohydrate B) fat C) protein D) vitamins
7. An effective way to replenish glycogen stores after an event is to consume ______ grams of carbohydrate per kilogram of body weight within 30 minutes.
A) 1 to 1.5 B) 6 to 8 C) 10 to 15 D) 60 to 80
A) 1 to 1.5
8. Protein combined with ______ in a postexercise meal increases glycogen synthesis more than just carbohydrate alone.
A) water B) fat C) minerals D) carbohydrate
9. Which of the following is not a sign of dehydration?
A) elevated heart rate at a given exercise intensity B) increased rate of perceived exertion during activity C) decreased performance D) increased appetite
D) increased appetite
10. To help facilitate optimal hydration, athletes should consume ______ounces of fluid during exercise every 15 to 20 minutes
A) 2 to 5 B) 6 to 12 C) 12 to 16 D) at least 16
B) 6 to 12
11. Which beverage does not have a diuretic effect on the body, causing further body fluid loss?
A) unsweetened tea B) sweetened coffee C) beer D) ginger ale
A) unsweetened tea
12. Androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) are thought to stimulate the production of
A) insulin B) ATP C) testosterone D) glucose
13. A natural stimulant that is thought to affect athletic performance through facilitating signals between the nervous system and the muscles as well as decreasing an athlete's perceived effort during exercise is
A) ATP B) caffeine C) chromium D) ginseng
14. Which ergogenic aid is believed to help transport long fatty acid chains into the mitochondria, where they are broken down?
A) ginseng B) medium-chain triglyceride oil C) carnitine D) DHEA
15. Which supplement has been used to promote weight loss and to improve athletic performance?
A) pyruvate B) creatine C) carnitine D) chromium
16. ______ is believed to increase blood glucose concentration, which would spare muscle glycogen stores.
A) Pyruvate B) Creatine C) Carnitine D) Chromium
17. Which supplement poses a danger of increasing of blood alkalinity, which directly influences blood pressure?
A) creatine B) coenzyme Q10 C) sodium bicarbonate D) pyruvate
C) sodium bicarbonate
18. Which of the following is not a reason for why athletes typically strive for lower body weight and lower body fat?
A) to feel better B) to improve appearance C) to enhance performance D) to qualify in a lower weight category
A) to feel better
19. During a marathon, approximately 98 percent of your muscles' needs are met by the
A) ATP-CP energy system B) oxygen energy system C) lactic acid energy system D) mitochondria energy system
B) oxygen energy system
20. Within the human body, _______ determine(s) the relative proportion of short-twitch muscle fibers to fast-twitch muscle fibers in athletes.
A) nutrition B) exercise intensity C) genes D) exercise duration