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a large white blood cell that engulfs pathogens and cellular debris


single-celled organisms that lack a nucleus; prokaryotes


cell organelle filled with enzymes needed to break down certain materials in the cell


a protein produced by certain white blood cells that regulates immune responses by activating lymphocytes and initiating fever


a nonliving, infectious particle composed of a nucleic acid and a protein coat; it can invade and destroy a cell

specific immunity

the third line of defense. the body's way of fighting off specific things that invade your body

helper T cell

a type of lymphocyte that works with B cells to increase antibody production by plasma cells, and stimulates the proliferation of both T cells and B cells


A protein that, when introduced in the blood, triggers the production of an antibody

nonspecific defense

physical or chemical barrier that prevents pathogens from entering the body

suppressor T cells

suppress the immune response once a foreign antigen has been destroyed


Nonspecific defensive response of the body to tissue injury, including dilation of blood vessels

natural killer cells

A type of white blood cell that can kill tumor cells and virus-infected cells; an important component of innate immunity.

killer T cells

look for infected cells and kill them (your own cells that are infected) to prevent the spread of pathogens


White blood cells


A weakened or inactive version of a pathogen that stimulates the body's production of antibodies which can aid in destroying the pathogen

memory B cells

cells in your immune system that remember how to make an antibody for a particular pathogen

B cell growth factor

encourages B lymphocytes to multiply


mobilize and activate macrophages against tumor cells


specialized protein that helps destroy disease-causing organisms


major histocompatibility complex; found in the plasma membrane; alerts T cells that a cell is infected w/ a virus

Passive immunity

an immunity resulting from antibodies that are conveyed naturally through the placenta to a fetus or artificially by injection of a serum containing antibodies

Acquired Immunity

immunity that the body develops after it overcomes a disease, or through inoculation (such as vaccination)

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