What were the 5 main causes of the Easter Rising?
1) Revival of the IRB
3) War and it's consequences - IVF split, disillusionment, coalition
5) Pearse and Connoly
Who were the leaders of the Irish Volunteers who were kept in the dark regarding any plans for rising?
MacNeill, Hobson and O'Rahilly
(Hobson was kidnapped when he found out about the insurrection and O'Rahilly later took part)
What THREE organisations did the IRB set about infiltrating?
1) Irish Volunteers - 1913
2) Gaelic League - 1893
What was the Fenian maxim by which the IRB separitists were spurred on by?
England's difficulty is Ireland's opportunity
What did Connoly and Pearse believe would be achieved, even if the rising failed?
The rising would "reawaken the soul of the nation"
What does REES say about the IRB military council?
The formation of the military council was the single most important factor in the planning of the Easter Rising
What does JACKSON comment about the war?
a revolution would have been virtually impossible without war
What does REES say about the Gaelic League?
"It was the Gaelic League... that brought a new generation of young men to nationalism"
The position of Clarke and McDermott, even within the IRB, can be referred to as...
a minority within a minority
What were the (6) key positions taken by the rebels?
1) The General Post Office
2)The Four Courts
3) St Stephen's Green
4) Jacob's Biscuit Factory
5) Boland's Bakery
6) South Dublin Union
Who were the (7) signatories of the Proclamation of the Irish Republic?
Why can the importance of 'blood-sacrifice' be easily overstated in motivations?
Pearse was not the leader of the rising. Clarke and McDermott were, and blood sacrifice was not their primary strategy but rather an improvised tactic
What evidence shows that blood sacrifice was not a key factor in the military council's plans? (2)
1) The scale of operations
2) The substantial German help
What did Pearse believe must happen in Ireland to reawaken the country?
the old heart of the earth needed to be warmed by the red wine of the battlefield
What was the opinion of unionists in regards to the Rising?
It was treachery and proof that Irish nationalists were at heart disloyal
On what date was the first execution and who (3) was executed?
3 May 1916, Pearse, Clarke and McDonagh
What was the date of the LAST execution and who (2) was executed?
12 May 1916, Connolly and MacDermott
What was the most prominent phrase in Dillon's outburst on 11th May?
"Our party has been regarded as traitors... and you are not washing away our whole life's work in a sea of blood"
What does Lady Fingall say about the executions?
she describes it as "watching a stream of blood coming from beneath a closed door"
Who described the executions as "watching a stream of blood coming from beneath a closed door"
What does George Bernard Shaw comment about the government's actions?
they were "canonising their prisoners"
What is it recorded that Connolly said to one of his men before starting the rising?
"we're going to be slaughtered"
Why is it hard to asses whether or not the rising was a success of failure?
The rising was never supposed to be a success, the leaders of it knew that upon initiating it.
For what reasons could the rising be considered a failure? (3)
1) German arms never arrived in Ireland
2) Risings in other parts of Ireland failed to materialise
3) Only 6 positions taken by rebels
What was an important result of the Easter Rising in regards to politics?
the fall of constitutional nationalism
What does Martin call the rising, and why?
A Rising of Intellectuals, because 3/7 signatories were poets and Connolly was a Marxist intellectual
The National Magazine (America) said what about the reaction to the rising?
"For one sympathizer with Sinn Fein Easter Monday, there are two today"
From where was the quote "For one sympathizer with Sinn Fein Easter Monday, there are two today" printed?
The American National Magazine
What does WALL say about the rising?
The rising was as much a revolt against the IPP as British Rule in Ireland
Why does Redmond not take a significant role during the aftermath of the rising, but Dillon?
Redmond was not in Ireland when the rising happened
What has the Rising been described as (in terms of general historical relevance)?
"one of the most interesting examples in all history of the triumph of failure"
What phrase is used by Yeats in his poem "Easter, 1916" to describe the events?
"A terrible beauty is born"
What was the primary objective of the Proclamation of the Irish Republic?
To declare that an Irish Republic had been established and that a provisional government had been appointed
What does LYONS say about the Irish Volunteers?
they "provided the physical force with the lever they were seeking"
MY OWN ASSESMENT OF GL
The Gaelic league was the essential ideological component behind the militant force of the IRB and Irish Volunteers.
What does WILLIAMS say about the Gaelic League?
it was the greatest single force in "propagating the separatist ideal" among Irishmen
What did 'new nationalism' provide? (2)
The revolutionary Elite
A reawakened sense of Irish nationalism
What did Dillon say about the insurgents during his outburst in the Commons on 11th May 1916?
they "fought a clean fight, a brave fight, however misguided"