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The Easter Rising, 1916
What were the 5 main causes of the Easter Rising?
1) Revival of the IRB
3) War and it's consequences - IVF split, disillusionment, coalition
5) Pearse and Connoly
When was a rising initially planned for?
Why was a rising in August 1914 not feasible?
unavailability of German help
Who were the two main militant separatists who led the Rising?
Clarke and McDermott
Who were the leaders of the Irish Volunteers who were kept in the dark regarding any plans for rising?
MacNeill, Hobson and O'Rahilly
(Hobson was kidnapped when he found out about the insurrection and O'Rahilly later took part)
How many members did the IRB have in 1914
What THREE organisations did the IRB set about infiltrating?
1) Irish Volunteers - 1913
2) Gaelic League - 1893
What was the Fenian maxim by which the IRB separitists were spurred on by?
England's difficulty is Ireland's opportunity
What did Connoly and Pearse believe would be achieved, even if the rising failed?
The rising would "reawaken the soul of the nation"
What does Rees comment about Carson?
Carson brought the gun back into Irish Politics
What does Laffan comment about Carson?
Carson rekindled the Fenian flame
What did the rising war death-toll lead to?
disillusionment with constitutional nationalism
The IRB military council was established
Who were the initial members of the IRB military Council? (3)
Pearse, Plunkett and Ceannt
How did the Military Council ensure total secrecy
they only liasoned with Clarke and McDermott
What does REES say about the IRB military council?
The formation of the military council was the single most important factor in the planning of the Easter Rising
Who, apart from REES, also highlights the importance of the IRB military council?
What strategy did 'Carsonism' follow?
an extra-parliamentary strategy - violence
Who highlights Carsonism as a major cause of the Rising?
What did war provide?
unique conditions for the rising to take place during
What does JACKSON comment about the war?
a revolution would have been virtually impossible without war
What does REES say about the Gaelic League?
"It was the Gaelic League... that brought a new generation of young men to nationalism"
Who is closely associated with the 'Gaelic Revival'?
The position of Clarke and McDermott, even within the IRB, can be referred to as...
a minority within a minority
Who went to Germany to negotiate arms for the rising?
Plunkett and Casement
When was conscription introduced into Britain?
What was the name of the vessel upon which the arms were brought from Germany to Ireland?
How many rifles did the Aud carry?
What date was the Easter Rising planned for?
Sunday 23 April 1916
When was the Aud intercepted?
21 April 1916
What was the duration of the rising?
24-29 April 1916
How many men took part in the Rising on the Monday 24th?
less than 1600
What were the (6) key positions taken by the rebels?
1) The General Post Office
2)The Four Courts
3) St Stephen's Green
4) Jacob's Biscuit Factory
5) Boland's Bakery
6) South Dublin Union
Who of the memvers served at the GPO? (5)
How many people were killed/ injured in total?
What key position did they fail to sieze?
How many civilians are said to have been killed?
Who is the most infamous of these citizens?
Who were the (7) signatories of the Proclamation of the Irish Republic?
How many times does the Proclamation mention 'republic'?
Who read out the Proclamation and where?
Pearse, in front of the GPO
What was a key idea which was held by Pearse which spurred on the rising?
Why can the importance of 'blood-sacrifice' be easily overstated in motivations?
Pearse was not the leader of the rising. Clarke and McDermott were, and blood sacrifice was not their primary strategy but rather an improvised tactic
What evidence shows that blood sacrifice was not a key factor in the military council's plans? (2)
1) The scale of operations
2) The substantial German help
What did Pearse write about 'Bloodshed' in 1913
Bloodshed is a cleaning and sanctifying thing
What did Pearse believe must happen in Ireland to reawaken the country?
the old heart of the earth needed to be warmed by the red wine of the battlefield
From whom did Pearse get a lot of insporation?
What was the opinion of unionists in regards to the Rising?
It was treachery and proof that Irish nationalists were at heart disloyal
What changed the tide of public opinion following the rising?
executions and killings of civilians
How many leaders were executed?
On what date was the first execution and who (3) was executed?
3 May 1916, Pearse, Clarke and McDonagh
Who was executed on 4th May?
Plunkett, Edward, Daly, W.Pearse and O'Hanrahan
What was the date of the LAST execution and who (2) was executed?
12 May 1916, Connolly and MacDermott
On what date did Dillon make his outburst in the house of commons?
11 May 1916
What was the most prominent phrase in Dillon's outburst on 11th May?
"Our party has been regarded as traitors... and you are not washing away our whole life's work in a sea of blood"
When did General Sir John Maxwell land in Dublin?
28 April 1916
What was Sir John Maxwell's first action upon arriving in Dulbin?
introduced marshall law
How many were tried?
120 men and 1 woman
How many were sentenced to death?
What does Lady Fingall say about the executions?
she describes it as "watching a stream of blood coming from beneath a closed door"
Who described the executions as "watching a stream of blood coming from beneath a closed door"
What does George Bernard Shaw comment about the government's actions?
they were "canonising their prisoners"
What date was Sheehy-Skeffington arrested and shot without trial?
26 April 1916
Where were many nationalist prisoners interned to?
How many people were interned to Frongoch Prison?
What is it recorded that Connolly said to one of his men before starting the rising?
"we're going to be slaughtered"
Why is it hard to asses whether or not the rising was a success of failure?
The rising was never supposed to be a success, the leaders of it knew that upon initiating it.
For what reasons could the rising be considered a failure? (3)
1) German arms never arrived in Ireland
2) Risings in other parts of Ireland failed to materialise
3) Only 6 positions taken by rebels
What was an important result of the Easter Rising in regards to politics?
the fall of constitutional nationalism
What does Martin call the rising, and why?
A Rising of Intellectuals, because 3/7 signatories were poets and Connolly was a Marxist intellectual
Who refers to the rising as a "Rising of Intellectuals"?
The National Magazine (America) said what about the reaction to the rising?
"For one sympathizer with Sinn Fein Easter Monday, there are two today"
From where was the quote "For one sympathizer with Sinn Fein Easter Monday, there are two today" printed?
The American National Magazine
What does WALL say about the rising?
The rising was as much a revolt against the IPP as British Rule in Ireland
Who claims that The rising was as much a revolt against the IPP as British Rule in Ireland?
Why does Redmond not take a significant role during the aftermath of the rising, but Dillon?
Redmond was not in Ireland when the rising happened
What has the Rising been described as (in terms of general historical relevance)?
"one of the most interesting examples in all history of the triumph of failure"
What phrase is used by Yeats in his poem "Easter, 1916" to describe the events?
"A terrible beauty is born"
What was the primary objective of the Proclamation of the Irish Republic?
To declare that an Irish Republic had been established and that a provisional government had been appointed
Where did the executions take place?
What does LYONS say about the Irish Volunteers?
they "provided the physical force with the lever they were seeking"
When was the Gaelic League established?
Who were the two main leaders of the Gaelic League?
Douglas Hyde and Eoin MacNeill
MY OWN ASSESMENT OF GL
The Gaelic league was the essential ideological component behind the militant force of the IRB and Irish Volunteers.
What (in the words of sample essay) was inspired by the rising?
a "national renaissance of Ireland"
What does WILLIAMS say about the Gaelic League?
it was the greatest single force in "propagating the separatist ideal" among Irishmen
What did 'Carsonism' encourage? (2)
the IRB revival and the formation of the IVF in November 1913
What did 'new nationalism' provide? (2)
The revolutionary Elite
A reawakened sense of Irish nationalism
When did Plunkett and Casement finally secure an arms deal with Germany for the rising?
How many were members of Connolly's Irish Citizen Army?
no more than 200
What did Dillon say about the insurgents during his outburst in the Commons on 11th May 1916?
they "fought a clean fight, a brave fight, however misguided"
What was the Easter Rising dubbed by many? (particularly British officials)
a "Sinn Fein Rebellion"
When was Casement executed? (he was hanged)
1 August 1916
What was the religious reaction to the Rising?
Generally they condemned the Rising - "criminal and insane"