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Leticia Maldonado Unit 9 vocab
Terms in this set (42)
a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
ex: the scientific study of physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
A one-celled organism formed by the union of a sperm and an egg.
An organism in the earliest stage of development
A fertilised egg in the first eight weeks after conception
In humans, the term for the developing organism between the embryonic stage and birth.
The developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth.
agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
certain chemicals or agents that can cause harm if ingested/contracted by the mother
fetal alcohol syndrome
a medical condition in which body deformation or facial development or mental ability of a fetus is impaired because the mother drank alcohol while pregnant
A group of birth defects caused by the effects of alcohol on an unborn child
a baby's tendency, when touched on the cheek, to turn toward the touch, open the mouth, and search for the nipple.
Reflex that causes a newborn to turn the head toward a light touch on lips or cheek
Decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner.
An organism's decreasing response to a stimulus with repeated exposure to it
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience
refers to the orderly and sequential developmental changes which occur in the nervous system and other bodily structures controlled by our genes.
a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
In Piaget's view, a specific mental structure; an organized way of interacting with the environment and experiencing it- a generalization a child makes based on comparable occurences of various actins, usally physical, motor actions
Adopting the traits of another culture. Often happens over time when one immigrates into a new country.
According to Piaget, the process by which new ideas and experiences are absorbed and incorporated into existing mental structures and behaviors
Adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information.
The process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina.
According to Piaget, the process by which existing mental structures and behaviors are modified to adapt to new experiences
All the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
A wide range of internal mental activities, such as analyzing information, generating ideas, and problem solving.
Piaget Stage: You manipulate environment in order to meet physical needs
The stage during which sensory input and motor responses become coordinated.
the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
The realization of infants that objects continue to exist even when they are out of sight
in Piaget's theory, the stage (from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic
A stage of cognitive development (2 to 7 years). Children learn to use language while they continue to think very literally. They maintain an egocentric worldview.
Ability to recognize that objects can e transformed in some way, visually or phycially, yet still be the same in number, weight, substance, or volume
Protecting and preserving natural resources and the environment
in Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view
Inability to perceive a situation or event except in relation to oneself; also know as self-centeredness
theory of mind
People's ideas about their own and others' mental states -- about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict
an awareness that other people's behavior may be influenced by beliefs, desires, and emotions that differ from one's own
a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others' states of mind
a mental condition, present from early childhood, characterized by difficulty in communicating and forming relationships with other people and in using language and abstract concepts.
concrete operational stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
logic, cause and effect, attaching meaning or significance to an event.
formal operational stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts
Piaget's fourth and final stage of cognitive development (beginning at about age 12), during which the individual can think hypothetically, can consider future possibilites, and can use deductive logic
the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age
a fear of strangers developing at 8 or 9 months of age
An emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation.
The strong emotional tie that a person feels toward special other persons in his or her life
an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development
The time in to development of an organism when it is especially sensitive to certain environmental influences; outside of that period the same influences will have far less effect
The process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life.
Includes both learning and innate components, generally irreversible.
according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers
a sense of being "all right"; results when the child experience caretakers' dependability, trust in self, trust in the child, and constantly availability nurturing (birth to one yr)
all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"
a sense of one's identity and personal worth
the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence
The period of extending from the onset of puberty to early adulthood
Developmental stage at which a person becomes capable of reproduction.
The period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing.
primary sex characteristics
a physical feature such as the reproductive organs and genitals that distinguish the sexes
the body structures that make sexual reproduction possible
secondary sex characteristics
a sex-differentiating characteristic that doesn't relate directly to reproduction, such as breast enlargement in women and deepening voices in men
nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair
first menstrual period
beginning of menstruation
Our sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles.
A person's view of who they are in terms of both internal and external factors.
A state of being or feeling in which each person in a relationship is willing to self-disclose and to express important feelings and information to the other person.
significant emotional closeness experienced in a relationship
Cessation of menstruation
The time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines.
Progressive degeneration of the brain that ultimately results in dementia.
an irreversible, progressive brain disorder, characterized by the deterioration of memory, language, and eventually, physical functioning
a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another
technique that compares individuals from different age groups at one time
research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period
A research method that focuses on a specific group of individuals at different ages to examine changes that have occurred over time
One's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age
learned knowledge and skills such as vocabulary, which tends to increase with age
One's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood.
cognitive abilities requiring speed or rapid learning that tends to diminish with age
the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement
The culturally determined psychological timepiece providing a sense of whether we have reached the major benchmarks of life at the appropriate time in comparison to our peers.
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