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102 terms

ch 19

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Respiration is
gas exchange between the atmosphere and cells
The events of respiration are
ventilation, external and internal respiration, and cellular respiration.
The ultimate function of breathing is to
. deliver oxygen to cells, where it takes part in the reactions of cellular respiration that liberate energy from nutrient molecules and get rid of carbon dioxide, which maintains the pH of the internal environment
Which of the following bones does not house a sinus?
zygomatic
Which of these laryngeal cartilages is single
cricoid
The pitch of a vocal sound is controlled by changing the
tension on the vocal cord
Arielle is an 8-year-old with cystic fibrosis. For 30 minutes each morning and evening, a parent holds her body in various positions and massages and kneads the areas over her lungs to dislodge the abundant, sticky mucus, which Arielle spits into a jar. She also takes medication - an enzyme - that thins the mucus. If she didn't take these measures, the mucus in her lungs would most likely increase her risk of
infection
the vocal cords are in the
larynx
Which of the following is not a function of the mucus-covered nasal passages?
cooling exhaled air
The intensity (volume) of a vocal sound is a result of the
force of air passing over the vocal cords
A flashlight placed just below the eyebrow in a darkened room illuminates the
frontal sinus
Laryngitis is a potentially dangerous condition because it may
obstruct the airway
the procedure used to directly examine the trachea and bronchial tree is called
bronchoscopy
The mucous membrane lining the nasal cavity
warms incoming air, moistens incoming air, entraps dust, entraps other small particles
The pharynx functions as a ______, whereas the larynx functions as a ______.
common passageway for air and food; passageway for air only
The trachea
is lined with a ciliated mucous membrane, includes 20 C-shaped cartilage rings, is a passageway for air, is also called the windpipe.
As the respiratory tube branches become finer
the epithelial lining changes from pseudostratified ciliated columnar to cuboidal and simple squamous epithelium.
The right lung has ______ lobes; the left lung has ______ lobes
superior, middle, and inferior; superior and inferior
The force that moves air into the lungs during inspiration comes from the
atmospheric pressure
The force responsible for normal expiration is supplied by the
elastic recoil of tissues and surface tension
The volume of air that enters or leaves the lungs during a normal respiratory cycle is the
tidal volume
Of the respiratory air volumes listed, which one has the largest volume?
vital capacity
Respiratory distress syndrome in newborns is caused by
lack of surfactant
The visceral and parietal pleural membranes are normally held together by
a thin film of serous fluid
Air entering the potential space of the pleural cavity is called
pneumothorax
A simple spirometer cannot measure which of the following air volumes?
risidual volume
. The most sensitive areas of the air passages are in the
larynx and bronchi.
The volume of air that enters (or leaves) during a single respiratory cycle is the
tidal volume
The first event in inspiration is
the diaphragm moves downward and the external intercostal muscles contract
The first event in expiration is
the diaphragm and external intercostal respiratory muscles relax
The inverse relationship between pressure and volume is known as
Boyle's law
The probable function of yawning
. is poorly understood
. The respiratory areas are in the
pons and medulla oblongata
"I'm going to hold my breath until I turn blue and stop breathing and die and it will be all your fault!" shrieked the 6-year-old at her father. The child was unable to carry out her threat because
increased CO2 and hydrogen ion concentration and decreased oxygen concentration stimulate chemoreceptors
Baby Timothy suffers from apnea and is hooked up to a monitor to warn his parents when he stops breathing. Timothy's dad snores very loudly. Timothy's condition differs from his father's in that infant apnea is
a central problem of respiratory control
Emily is winded from running to her car from the supermarket. It is late at night and she thinks she is being followed. Which of the following receptors would not be involved in regulating her breathing rate?
Baroreceptors
The ventral part of the medulla oblongata near the origin of the vagus nerve has
central chemoreceptors
Which of the following factors does not directly affect breathing rate?
ph
Peripheral receptors stimulate the respiratory areas resulting in
increased respiratory rate
. The partial pressure of oxygen that stimulates the respiratory areas is ___ of normal
50%
Oxygen plays a minor role in control of normal respiration because
deoxygenated venous blood is 75% saturated
Which of the following is important in maintaining the pH of blood
Carbon dioxide
The chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies are most sensitive to changes in blood concentration of
oxygen
Carbon dioxide is sometimes added to the air that a patient breathes in order to
. increase the rate and depth of breathing
Hyperventilation is usually accompanied by a(n)
decrease in blood CO2 concentration and a rise in pH
Max works out about an hour every day, using aerobic machines at a gym. During his moderate physical exercise, blood concentrations of
oxygen and carbon dioxide remain nearly unchanged
Increasing blood concentrations of carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions have similar effects upon the respiratory areas due to
an increase in carbon dioxide, increasing hydrogen ions
The walls of the alveoli are composed of
simple squamous epithelium.
. The respiratory membrane consists of
two thicknesses of epithelial cells and basement membranes
Alveoli are kept clean by the action of
macrophages.
. In bronchopulmonary dysplasia, the lungs of newborns become inflamed and scarred. Most infants recover, but some die. An experimental treatment cultures stem cells from a newborn's umbilical cord. The stem cells, in a lab dish, give rise to type II cells, which in turn give rise to more type I cells. In this treatment
the type II cells secrete surfactant and the type I cells form the respiratory membrane
Police stop Richard for driving erratically at 3 AM and give him a breathalyzer test, which he fails miserably because of
the thinness of his respiratory membranes
. The amount of oxygen released from oxyhemoglobin increases when
carbon dioxide concentration increases
The enzyme carbonic anhydrase causes
carbon dioxide to react with water.
Which of the following proteins transports some carbon dioxide in the blood
hemoglobin
globin is
. the protein part of hemoglobin, which carries oxygen in the blood
. The chloride shift
maintains the ionic balance between the red blood cells and the plasma.
A mother and two young children are found passed out in their apartment, where a space heater is on. Emergency medical technicians suspect carbon monoxide poisoning, so they give the patients
highly concentrated oxygen and some carbon dioxide
Changes in the respiratory system that accompany aging are
thickened mucus.
B. slowed swallowing reflex.
C. macrophages become less efficient at keeping bacteria out.
D. cilia become less active or vanish
Exposure to secondhand smoke can cause or increase risk of
heart disease, lung cancer, and low birth weight
Exposure to secondhand smoke increases risk of
damage to the smooth endothelial lining of blood vessels.
B. platelet activation
C. abnormal blood clotting.
D. decreased coronary artery blood flow.
Cancer that originates in the lungs is most likely to begin in
epithelial (lining) cells
Smokers are more susceptible to respiratory infections because
their respiratory passages lose cilia, which would otherwise remove bacteria
In emphysema
pressure in alveoli increases and their walls burst, coalescing them and decreasing the surface area for gas exchange
In October 2001 at the site of the World Trade Center in New York City, fires were still burning from the terrorist attacks that had brought down the buildings. The greatest danger to the respiratory system was
very small particles of debris
A disorder seen in people who work in factories that package buttered popcorn, caused by inhaling organic dust, is
extrinsic allergic alveolitis
Bronchial asthma is usually caused by
an allergy
During an asthma attack, the patient usually finds it most difficult to
exhale
Emphysema increases
none of the above
Breathing rate increases during exercise due to
signals from the cerebral cortex to the respiratory areas when it also signals skeletal muscles to contract.
B. muscle stimulation of proprioceptors.
C. a joint reflex.
D. stimulation of the respiratory areas by decreasing blood concentration of oxygen and increasing blood concentration of carbon dioxide.
The hypoxia associated with high altitude can cause
vasoconstriction of the pulmonary blood vessels
At high altitudes, when capillary pressure becomes too high,
fluid filters out of the blood and collects in the alveoli
Atelectasis is
a collapsed lung.
In tuberculosis
fibrous connective tissue forms around the sites of bacterial infection.
Pneumonia can be caused by
bacteria, viruses, or fungi
Another word for breathing is ventilation
t
Cellular respiration enables cells to harness the energy from oxygen
f
The organs of the upper respiratory tract are located outside the thorax
t
The pharynx is an enlargement at the top of the trachea that houses the vocal cords
f
The glottis is the opening between the vocal cords
t
The left lung is larger than the right lung and is divided into three lobes
f
The pectoralis minors and the sternocleidomastoid are useful in aiding forced expiration
f
. The inflation reflex is activated when stretch receptors are stimulated during inspiration
t
A sudden contraction of the diaphragm while the glottis is closed produces a sneeze
f
Ordinary air is about 21% oxygen and 78% nitrogen
t
Gas exchange occurs across alveolar pores
f
Carbon monoxide bonds to hemoglobin more effectively than does oxygen
t
The greatest amount of carbon dioxide transported in the blood is in the form of dissolved carbon dioxide
f
Oxygen is carried in the blood in the form of bicarbonate ions and is bound to hemoglobin
f
Carbon monoxide is toxic because it destroys respiratory areas in the brain.
f
Coughing reflexes become faster with age
f
The bronchus and blood vessels enter a lung through the _______.
hilum
The nasal conchae create passageways in the nasal cavity called ______.
meatuses
The cartilaginous structure at the base of the tongue that helps to prevent food and liquid from entering the trachea during swallowing is the ______.
epiglottis
The layer of serous membrane that is firmly attached to the surface of a lung is called ______ ______.
visceral pleura
The ease with which the lungs can be expanded during breathing is called ______.
comliance
The respiratory areas are in the medulla oblongata and the ____ of the brainstem
pons
A voluntary increase in the rate and depth of breathing is called ______.
hyperventilation
In a mixture of gases, each gas creates a pressure called its ______ ______.
partial pressure
The cells of an alveolus that secrete surfactant are type __.
2
When carbon dioxide bonds to hemoglobin, the compound ______ forms
carbaminohemoglobin
. The amount of oxygen released from oxyhemoglobin ______ as the concentration of carbon dioxide increases
increases