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Father Mijuel Hidelgo y Costilla

Mexican priest who led a rebellion for independence from Spain.

Santa Fe Tril

Western trail from Missouri to New Mexico that was an important route for trade between American and Mexican merchants.

manifest density

The belief that the United States was meant to expand across the continent to the Pacific Ocean,

Jonh sitter

Swiss immigrant who received permission from Mexico to start a colony in California.


Spanish colonists in California.


Members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latterday Saints.

Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

Mexican ruler who fought to keep Texas from gaining independence.

Donner party

A group of pioneers who were stranded in the Sierra Nevada Mountains and struggled to survive the winter.

mountian men

Fur traders and trappers who lived west of the Rocky Mountains and in the Pacific Northwest.


Agents hired by the Mexican government to attract settlers to Texas.

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