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characteristics of minerals
-specific chemical comp
Rocks cool beneath Earth's surface
slowing cooling: mineral grains have time to grow large
Form on Earth's surface
Cool rapidly (lava exposed to air) solidifies
Basalt (oceanic crust) fine texture
External processes cause rock disintegration
Material transported by water as sediment
Over long periods, large amounts of sediment build to large thicknesses (layering)
Exert enormous pressure which causes particles in sediment to interlock (clastic)
Chemical cementation takes place (chemicals dissolves into spaces)
Strata—horizontal layers of sedimentary rock; sometimes tilted into vertical by Earth processes
chemical and organic sedimentary rock
Formed by precipitation of soluble materials or complicated chemical reactions
Limestone and coal
Organic sedimentary rocks such as coal form from remains of dead plants and animals
igneous or sedimentary rocks that have been changed by heat and pressure
rearranges crystal structure
large volumes of rock are subjected to heat and pressure over long time scales' underground; intensive areas
external geo process
originate from sources above the lithosphere, such as the atmosphere or oceans; decrease relief of land surface
"The present is the key to the past"
Processes which shaped the landscape of the past are the same that will shape the future
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