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52 terms

earth systems ch 13

STUDY
PLAY
crust
-very thin
-less than 1% of earths volume
moho discontinuity
-between crust and mantle
mantle
-mantle occupies most space (84%)
-upper/lower mantle, and asthenosphere
asthenosphere
molten material
lithosphere
uppermantle and crust
outer core
molten
magnetic field of earth generated by iron rich core
inner core
dense mass
continental crust
composition, light
oceanic crust
more dense and heavy
minerals
naturally formed compounds and elements of earth
building blocks of rocks
characteristics of minerals
-natural
-solid
-inorganic
-specific chemical comp
-crystalline structure
silicates
most common element in the lithosphere
oxygen and silicone
left over
oxides
elements combined with oxygen
sulfides
sulfur and another element; ores
sulfates
oxygen and sulfur
carbonates
light colored
combo of oxygen, carbon, and another element
limstone
halides
salty minerals
arid regions
dont stick around
native elements
gold and silver
rocks
composed of many minerals
bedrock
deep underground rock
outcrop
rocks exposed to the surface
regolith
as rocks break up
magma
molten rock deep inside
lava
when molten rock (magma) comes out
igneous rock
"fiery inception"
pyrocastics
based on mineral comp and texture
felsic and mafic
pyroclastics
rocks welded together
felsic
light colored
mafic
dark colored
plutonic (intrusive)
Rocks cool beneath Earth's surface
slowing cooling: mineral grains have time to grow large
course texture
Granite
volcanic extrusive
Form on Earth's surface
Cool rapidly (lava exposed to air) solidifies
Basalt (oceanic crust) fine texture
sedimentary rock
External processes cause rock disintegration
Material transported by water as sediment
Over long periods, large amounts of sediment build to large thicknesses (layering)
Exert enormous pressure which causes particles in sediment to interlock (clastic)
Chemical cementation takes place (chemicals dissolves into spaces)
strata
strata
Strata—horizontal layers of sedimentary rock; sometimes tilted into vertical by Earth processes
clastic
composed fragments of preexisting rocks
cemented together because of pressure
shale
chemical and organic sedimentary rock
Formed by precipitation of soluble materials or complicated chemical reactions
Limestone and coal
Organic sedimentary rocks such as coal form from remains of dead plants and animals
metamorphic rocks
igneous or sedimentary rocks that have been changed by heat and pressure
rearranges crystal structure
predictable shape
contact metamorphism
rock contacts magma and is rearranged
regional metamorphism
large volumes of rock are subjected to heat and pressure over long time scales' underground; intensive areas
schist
metamorphic rocks with narrow foilations
gneiss
broad, banded foilations
the rock cycle
ongoing processes where rocks transition from one type to the other
continental crust
sedimentary rock makes up 75%
not thick
granite
ocean floor crust
basalt
heavier; goes under continental
isostasy
crust sinks under weight and rebound when material is removed
topography
surface configurations of earth
landform
individual topographic feature of any size
geomorphology
Study of Earth's land forms and the processes that have formed them
elements of landform study
Structure
Process
Slope
Drainage
relief
Difference in elevation between highest
and lowest points in an area
internal geo process
originate from within Earth, increase relief of land surface
external geo process
originate from sources above the lithosphere, such as the atmosphere or oceans; decrease relief of land surface
uniformitarianism
"The present is the key to the past"
Processes which shaped the landscape of the past are the same that will shape the future
geologic time
Vast periods of time over which geologic processes operate