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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
Enlightenment and French Revolution
Terms in this set (56)
Rules discovered by use of reason such as gravity and magnetism
An idea by Hobbes that people entered this and it was an agreement which gave up people's freedom for an organized society
Rights which belong to all humans from birth
The belief that logic and reasoning should be the basis of your actions
A series of 28 books which explained government, philosophy, religion, and more. It contained articles from current thinkers, which denounced slavery and praised freedom of expression. Written by Diderot
French thinkers who focused on reforms, they based their thinking on natural laws, mainly of economics
The economic policy in which a country should be self-sufficient and is valued by the amount of gold and silver that it possesses.
An economy in which trade of raw goods and products where traded and sold by businesses and companies, not the government
Informal social gatherings where writers, artists, and philosophers exchanged. Ideas
Absolute rulers who used their power to cause social change and political change
Philosophy is based on the idea that humans are essentially selfish creatures. He though all people are equal but being equal leads to competition and violence. He thought id left alone people would act in their own self interest therefore the best rule is a monarchy. He thought governments were created to protect people from their own selfishness and evil. He believed democracy would never work
Philosophy is based on three separate branches of government. He thought that women were weaker then men but that is what made the better suited for power positions. He was not an atheist but was against the church.
He was gain st society's institutions and thought they corrupted people nature goodness. He believed that people can be both free and ruled but the best government is a direct democracy.
He believed that people had the natural ability to govern themselves and to look after the well being of society. He was against slavery and control of any person, therefore the government should also be split into three branches
Critiqued officials for their corrupt mess, and fought inequality, injustice, and superstition. He was strongly against the slave trade and also religious prejudice. He was outspoken in his beliefs, he wrote many books and talked a bout the importance of free speech. He stated his beliefs by using humor in a sarcastic way, he didn't directly say names but he implied them and used descriptors to describe them.
Economist who is associated with being the father of Capitalism and supported the physiocrats
The government spends more money then it takes in
The collection of three estates (social classes) in which they voted on ideas and laws, originally it was a split vote where each estate had one vote, but later it became a by head vote after the third party pushed for change. It was a legislature that had not been called for 125 years.
After the Third Estate declared that the vote should be counted by head they decided that they should make a new legislative power all together, as they tried to enter their meeting place they found the doors barred, they went over to a tennis court across the street and declared themselves the National Assembly after the Tennis Court Oath.
In the Radical Phase they changed the Name of The National assembly to show that they were different, they wanted to become a republic and completely get rid of the King.
The Tennis Court Oath
An oath taken by the National Assembly that declared that they would never separate until they had an established and sound constitution.
Comprised of the clergy and all the church 1-2%, against the Enlightenment
Comprised of Nobility, about 1-2%, hated absolutism
Comprised of rest of Population, about 95%, took the most impact from taxation and bread prices, and eventually was most of the revolutionaries.
A grim, mid evil fortress, which was used as a prison for both political and other prisoners. The French people stormed the Bastille during the revolution and killed the guards and tore down the prison brick by brick. It symbolized the start of the Revolution
Decelaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
Essential principles about men and how they are born equal, and deserve the rights of life, liberty, equality, and property.
Constitution of 1791
Not necessary to known contents just that it was created
Committee of Public Safety
A committee of 12 men led by Maximilian Robespierre which set out to execute and eliminate traitors to the Revolution.
Reign of Terror
40,000 people died and 17,000 were killed in trial, it was a period of time in which there was extreme distrust in everyone.
A death machine which killed thousands of people per month during the radical phase. It was released by a rope and decapitated its prisoner.
It guarantees freedom and equality under the law, especially in property.
King Louis XVI
Terrible King, led France into a downfall from his lavishness and willingness to let things happen without interference.
Queen of France, known as ***** of Augsburg and Madam Deficit, she did not regard the terrible conditions of France and many stories were made up about her, such as, let them eat cake, the diamond necklace, and even a scandal with her son.
Leader of the revolution who spearheaded the movement, he was on the National ASsembly, National Convention, and the Committee of Public Safety. The radical Phase ended with highs execution
Started military training at the age of nine, rose through the ranks and became general. he became well known for his political prowess and eventually developed a coo and overthrew the government, and established himself as the emperor. From there he expanded France across Europe and defeated almost every country in Europe. His downfall came when he tried to attack Russia during the winter and failed. He established a Napoleonic Code which stressed the rights of man and equality for all men, especially relating to property.
What were some of the main revolutionary ides espoused by Enlightenment thinkers?
Scholasticism is ridiculous and should be eradicated
Pursuit of Hapiness/Pleasure
Pleasure is ok, not evil, and is important in the world
Science should help society
Reason can improve our lives and get rid of suffering
Discrimination because of religion/lifestyle is not ok
Beating children does not help them, you must lead them
Pistons are places where rehabilitation can occur
Certain things are private/public
Separation of Church and State
Monarchs and Clergy should be accountable for their actions
What is the link between coffe/cafes and the Enlightenment as well as the French Revolution.
They were a quite ambient place where people could freely discuss and share their ideas as opposed to taverns where it was loud and everyone was drunk and thinking unclearly.
What Economic ideas in general did the Enlightenment thinkers support?
Capitalism because it restored the power to the people, instead of the government owning someone's business they could own their own business and encouraged the ideas further of pursuit of pleasure and freedom.
Natural Laws of Economics
No govt. influence in business
Favorable balance of trade
Describe the different ways the Enlightenment ideas spread through Europe
The printing press made it possible to create small easy to read pamphlets that could be given to huge amounts of people. another way was salons where people could exchange thoughts and ideas without worrying that they would be killed for their beliefs and ideas.
Why did the Enlightenment ideas threaten the old systems of government and church?
People questioned the way things were and why by using logic and reasoning, eventually this questioning turned to government and religion, why did this mean only this one thing, and why should we be ruled by just one person when there are so many of us. People wanted to reform the way of thinking which eventually changed to wanting to reform government and the church.
Why did a few rulers embrace enlightenment ideas?
Either for selfish reason for power or because they actually believed in some of the ideas, and believed that they could improve their country and land.
Describe the three estates of French Society and explain why each was upset with conditions in 1789?
The first estate comprised of the clergy and other church officials. It was 1-2% of the population and was exempt from taxes. They did not like the enlightenment because it critiqued the clergy for their actions and idleness.
The second estate was made of the nobility and was also 1-2% of the population, They were upset because they were being forced from higher paying jobs and did not like the absolute monarchy because it took away from their power.
The third estate was the rest of he population, about 95% of it and was made of lawyers, peasants, urban workers, and more. The increasing price of bread was killing them and the government was doing nothing about it. hey also took the most impact from taxation and restrictions.
What were the causes of the financial crisis in France in 1789?
Deeply in debt due to Louis XIV
Cost rose due to need to pay back debts
Gap between classes grew greatly
Bad harvests increased food prices
Following kings focused on pleasure instead of fixing the problems
In debt from interfering in American Revolution
Why did Louis XVI decide to call the Estates General in 1789, what was the outcome of the meeting?
The huge debt that they owed led to increases in prices which upset a large majority of the population, France was on the verge of bankruptcy and feared riots and separation from the noble class so he asked for their help. The outcome was a push of ideas such as fairer taxes, freedom of press, and regular meetings. They called for meetings to vote on subjects by a class single vote, eventually this led to the formation of the National Assembly after the system had upset the large majority of people, the Third Estate.
Why is Bastille Day considered a French national holiday?
It symbolized the start of the revolution, it showed that the people did have power and if they fought together they could defeat any enemy. It acted as a wake up call to all monarchs that regardless of what they thought the people had the power. it showed the frustration in the government and that the people would no longer sit idly by while they were starved.
Describe the connection between Renaissance-> Protestant Reformation-> Scientific Revolution-> Enlightenment-> American Revolution-> French Revolution.
Humanism was the belief in returning to the basics and focusing on their arts and expressionism, this led to the Protestant reformation because people wanted to be able to express themselves in their religion too. Eventually this led to the idea of questioning, why should..., this was a major impact on the Scientific Revolution. They wanted to change the way things had been by applying logic and reasoning, to come up with answer to things, People started to apply this way of thinking by using logic and reasoning to more then just science, politics, government, and moe. People started to believe in freedom and the pursuit of Hapiness, this all led to the American REvolution. Why should Britain control us and oppress us, shouldn't we have freedom and the right to the pursuit of Hapiness. This finally led to the French Revolution because they saw that a small group was able to defeat a large army, it was an example of a successful Revolution so France borrowed many of the same ideas and principles to their own Deceleration and Revolution.
How did Enlightenment ideas influence supporters of the French Revolution?
People liked the ideas that people thought of new forms of government and also ideas such as freedom and pursuit of Hapiness, they wanted to be able to make their own choices and not have the government controlling them. The liked taking the power from the church, and being able to have religious freedom.
Central Principles of the Deceleration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
Article I - Men are born and remain free and equal in rights. Social distinctions can be founded only on the common good.
Article II - The goal of any political association is the conservation of the natural and imprescriptible rights of man. These rights are liberty, property, safety and resistance against oppression.
Article III - The principle of any sovereignty resides essentially in the Nation. No body, no individual can exert authority which does not emanate expressly from it.
What was the impact of the women's march on Versailles?
It showed that women could have an impact and change the world, not just men. It showed a dedication to the Revolution that people did not know had sister before.
How did people outside of France react to the revolution as it developed?
People believed France had become warlike and destructive due to lies told by emigres. People destroyed Enlightenment documents out of fear that their country would turn demonic aAnd warlike like France had becomePrussia, Austria, and Russia all feared France because they bordered it so they prepared for war.
Why is the first stage of the revolution considered moderate, and what makes the revolution radical in the second stage?
There were less killings at the time and the king was still in power, the second stage became radical because they started to kill thousands of people per month and the King lost almost all his power.
What might have led people to violence during the radical stage?
People were afraid of traitors among them and aced out because of their fear, they turned against each other out of fear of death. People acted with violence so that they were no l on gear afraid. They feared death so they killed others instead of themselves.
What was the role of Maximilian Robespierre in the French Revolution. Why was he called both a tyrant and a dedicated revolutionary?
he acted as the figured head for the French Revolution and served on the Committee of Public Safety, he deemed who would die on his supposed list of traitors and acted as the ruler almost. He was a tyrant at this time because he told everyone who should live and die. He established new churches and more, and took the power into his own hands. He was a dedicated revolutionary because he did want to change and eliminate the absolute monarchs in England, and he wanted to free the world from oppression.
After ten years how has France changed?
Dislodged led social order
Brought church under state control
Liberty and equality for all men
All social classes were citizens
Practicality became important
Rise of Nationalism
Abolishment of slavery
Organized systems for oldies, poor, and elderly
Forward thinking became prevalent
Republic governmental class
Influence on the entire world in regard to government
Brought power back to the people
Mandatory education for the masses
Why did the people of France support Napoleon? What were positives and drawbacks of Napoleons rule?
He was a well known general who had gained the trust of people and was highly regarded by the military. He helped France by regulations taxes, making the Declaration of the Right of Man law, and he expanded France, and built roads and bridges. He also took rights away from women and reset abolished himself as an emperor which went against a lot of the previous ideas during the revolution.
How did Napoleon and France come to dominate most of Europe, and what eventually led to his downfall?
Napoleon created many allies by putting his family on the thrown, he was able to control vast amounts of are through his family. Eventually his thirst for conquest led to his downfall when he tried to conquer Russia in the winter, where many of his troops died from starvation and hypothermia.
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