world history exam (chapter 1 only)

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age biasbased on when you were bornracial biasbased on raceethnic biasbased on culture/ ethnicityeconomic biassocial economic classhistoriographythe study of the way history has been and is written- the study of historical writingMiddle Ages, Europeour christian calendar was developed during ________________ in _____________before christBCBefore Common EraBCEAnno DominiADIn the Year of Our Lordwhat does "Anno Domini" meanCommon EraCEcircameans "around" or "about"10-15 billion yearsage of the universe5 billion yearsage of the earthgeographythe study of interaction between humans and the environmentchangedmankind was largely influenced by geography Because of how the earths landscape has _______, it has shaped the course of history.prehistoryall the time before the invention of a written language3,000 BC(Neolithic)prehistory is all the time before ________archaeologystudy of culture and artifactsanthropologycomes from the Greek work for man (study of man)fossilsPreserved remains of once-living organismsartifactsobject made by human beings, either hand-made or mass-producedradiocarbon dating- measures C-14 (carbon) left in an object - only accurate for dating objects up to 50,000 yearsthermoluminescence dating-measures the light given off by electrons in the soil surrounding fossils and artifacts - able to determine age of objects up to 200,000 years - unreliableDNA testing- DNA matter can survive millions of years - useful in determining evolutionary links2.5 million-2300 BCdates of the stone age3300-1200 BCdates of the bronze age1200-586 BCdates of the iron agestone, bronze, ironorder of the 3 ages from oldest to youngestpaleolithic, neolithic2 parts of the stone agepaleolithic age (2.5 million-10,000)- means Old Stone Age - used stone bc of abundance -human used crude/simple tools - fire -cave paints - hunter/gatherers -nomadicNeolithic Age (10,000-3,300)- means New Stone Age - more advanced tools - development of agriculture - more leisure time - neolithic farming villages - agricultural revolutionBronze Age (3300-1200)- people started working copper - made bronze which was a mix of copper and tin - begins about the same time prehistory ends and history beginscities, organized central government, religion, social classes, job specialization, writingcharacteristics of a civilizationriver valleysfirst cities were located in _____ ______priestsearly governments were headed by _______polytheismearly religion was __________chief, priests, nobles, wealthy merchants, artisans, peasants and farmers, slavessocial hierarchypriestswriting was thought to first be used by _______pictogramsearly writing used ______-