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99 terms

S&F Chapter 5 - Integumentary System and Body Membranes

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Integumentary System
The skin; the largest and most important organ in the body
Membrane
Thin layer of sheet; help cover the body, lubricate agent, and protection
Epithelial membranes and Connective tissue membranes
There are two major categories of body membranes:
Epithelial membranes
Composed of epithelial tissue and an underlying layer of specialized connective tissue
Connective tissue membrane
Composed exclusively of various types of connective tissue; no epithelial cells are present in this type of membrane
Cutaneous, serous, mucous membrane
There are three types of epithelial tissue membranes in the body:
Cutaneous membrane
Primary organ of the integumentary system; the skin
16%
How many percent of body weight does the skin composes of?
Serous membrane
A two-layered epithelial membrane that lines body cavities and covers the surfaces of organs
Basement membrane
The connective tissue layer of the serous membrane that holds and supports the epithelial cells
Parietal portion and visceral portion
There are two types of serous membranes
Parietal portion
A serous membrane that lines the walls of a body cavity
Visceral portion
serous membrane that covers the organs found in a body cavity
Pleura
The serous membrane in the thoracic cavity
Peritoneum
The serous membrane in the abdominal cavity
Pleurisy
inflammation of the serous membrane (pleura) that line the chest cavity and cover the lungs
Peritonitis
Inflammation of the serous membranes in the abdominal cavity. Is sometimes a serous complication of an infected appendix
Mucous membranes
Epithelial membranes that line body surfaces opening directly to the exterior and secrete a thick, slippery material called mucus
Mucocutaneou junction
Describe the transitional area that serves as a point of "fusion" where skin and mucous membranes meet
Synovial membranes
Connective tissue membrane lining the spaces between bones and joints that secretes synovial fluid
Synovial fluid
the thick, colorless lubricating fluid secreted by the synovial membrane
Bursae
Small, cushion-like sacs found between moving body parts, making movement easier
Epidermis
The outermost layer of the skin. It is a relatively thin sheet of stratified squamous epithelium
Dermis
Deeper of the two payers. It is thicker than the epidermis and is made up largely of connective tissue
Subcutaneous tissue
Tissue below the layers of skin; made up of loose connective tissue and fat
Hypodermis
The loose, ordinary (areloar) tissue just under the skin and superficial to the muscles; also called subcutaneous tissue or superficial fascia
Subcutaneous tissue
This connective tissue acts as a shock-absorbing pad and helps protect underlying tissues from injury caused by bumps and blows to the body surface
Stratum germinativum
The innermost of the tightly packed epithelial cells of the epidermis; cells in this layer are able to reproduce themselves
Karatin
Protein substance found in hair , nails, outer skin cells, and horny tissues
Stratum corneum
The tough outer layer of the epidermis; cells are filled with keratin
Blisters
A baglike fluid-filled elevation of the skin caused by an irritant such as heat, friction, or a chemical
Pigment layer
The layer of the epidermis that contains the melanocytes that produce melanin to give skin its color
Melanin
Brown skin pigment
Melanocytes
Specialized cells in the pigment layer that produce melanin
Melanin
It's main function is to absorb harmful ultraviolet radiation from sunlight before it reaches tissues below the outer layers of the skin
Cyanosis
Bluish appearance of the skin caused by deficient oxygenation of the blood
Dermal-epidermal junction
The junction that exists between the think epidermal layer of the skin above and the dermal layer below
Collagen
Principle organic constituent of connective tissue; tough and strong fibers
Elastic
Fiber that are stretchable and elastic
Dermal papillae
Upper region of the dermis that forms part of the dermal-epidermal junction and forms the ridges and grooves of fingerprints
Dermal papillae
They form the ridges and grooves that make up your fingerprints and footprints
Reticular layer
The deeper area of the dermis is filled with a dense network of interlacing fibers
Follicles
specialized structures required for hair growth
Lanugo
The extremely fine and soft hair found on a newborn infant
Hair follicle
A small tube where hair growth occurs
Hair papilla
A small, cap-shaped cluster of cells located at the base of the follicle where hair growth begins
Arrector pili
Smooth muscles of the skin, which are attached to hair follicles; when contraction occurs, the hair stands up, resulting in "goose flesh"
Goose bumps
Between the depressed points of the skin and at the same time pulls the hairs up until they are more or less straight
Tactile (Meissner) corpuscle
A sensory receptor located in the skin close to the surface that detects light touch
Lamellar (Pacini) corpuscle
A receptor found deep in the dermis that detects pressure on the skin surface
Free nerve endings
Specialized receptors in the skin that respond to pain
Bulboid corpuscles (Krause's end bulbs)
Skin receptor that detects sensations of cold
Nails
Classified as accessory organs of the skin and are produced by cells in the epidermis
Nail body
The visible part of the nail
Lunula
Crescent-shaped white area under the proximal nail bed
Cuticle
Skinfold covering the root of the nail
Nail root
The part of the nail that is hidden by the cuticle
Nail bed
epithelium under the nail
Sweat (sudoriferous) glands and sebaceous glands
What are two skin glands
Sweat (sudoriferous) glands
Glands that secrete sweat; also referred to as sweat glands
Eccrine and apocrine
Sweat glands can classified into two groups
Eccrine sweat glands
Small sweat glands distributed over the total body surface
3000 eecrine sweat glands
A single square inch of skin on the palms of the hands estimate how many eccrine sweat glands?
Pores
Pinpoint-size opening on the skin that serves as an outlet of a small duct from the eccrine sweat glands
Apocrine sweat glands
Sweat glands located in the axilla and genital regions; these glands enlarge and begin to function at puberty
Contamination and decomposition of the secretion by skin bacteria
Aprocrine sweat glands caused by
Sebaceous glands
Oil-producing gland found in the skin
Sebum
"nature's skin cream" secretion of sebaceous glands
White pimples
Sebum accumulates in and enlarges some of the ducts of the sebaceous glands forming a
Blackhead
Sebum that accumulates, darkens, and enlarges some of the ducts of the sebaceous glands; also known as a comedo
Squamous cell carcinoma
Malignant tumor of the epidermis; slow-growing cancer that is capable of metastasizing; the most common type of skin cancer
Basal cell carcinoma
One of the most common forms of skin cancer, usually occurs on upper face, with low potential for metastasizing
Malignant
Cancerous growth
Squamouse cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma
What are the three most common types of skin cancer
Ultraviolet radiation
What is the most important factor in causing the common skin cancer
Kaposi sarcoma
A malignant neoplasm (cancer) of the skin characterized by purplish spots
Basal cell carcinoma
this type of skin cancer are less likely to metastasize than other types
Benign
noncancerous
Melanoma
Epidemiological studies show that adults who had more than two blistering sunburns before the age of 20 have a much greater risk to develop:
Protection, temperature regulation, sense organ activity
What are three most important function of the skin
Asymmetry, border, color, diameter
What to assess of signs of malignant melanoma
Asymmetry
o Benign moles are usually symmetrical; their halves are mirror images of each other.
o Melanoma lesions are asymmetrical or lopsided
Border
o Benign moles are outlined by a distinct border
o malignant melanomal lesions are often irregular or indistinct in shape.
Color
o Benign moles may be any shade of brown but are relatively evenly colored
o Melanoma lesions tend to be evenly colored, exhibiting a mixture of shades or colors.
Diameter
o Melanoma lesion is probably larger than 6 mm (1/4 inches)
Burns
An injury to tissues resulting from contact with heat, chemicals, electricity, friction, or radiant and electromagnetic energy; classified into four categories, depending on the number of tissue layers involved
"Rule of Nines"
A frequently used method to determine the extent of a burn injury; the body is divided into 11 areas of 9% each and 1% to the perineum to help estimate the amount of skin surface burned in an adult
First-degree burn
Minor discomfort and some reddening of the skin. The surface layers of the epidermis may peel in 1 to 3 days, no blistering occurs, and actual tissue destruction is minimal
Second-degree burn
Deep epidermal layers and always causes injury to the upper layers of the dermis. Complete destruction of the dermis does not occur.
Partial-thickness burns
Term used to describe both minor burn injury and severe burns that injury both epidermis and dermis (first and second degree burns)
Third-degree
also known as full-thickness burn; characterized by complete destruction of the epidermis and dermis
Dermis
This layer of skin contains a specialized network of nerves and nerve endings to process sensory information.
Cyanosis
This condition occurs when blood oxygen levels decrease or if actual blood flow is reduced dramatically
Dermal blood vessel
The dermal pailla is nourish by the
Eccrine
Which sweat glands are the most numerous and are, with few exceptions, distributed over the total body surface?
Reticular layer
Deeper area of the dermis is felled with a dense network of interlacing fibers
1-2 mm/week
How long does a nail grow
Dendrite
Branching or treelike; a nerve cell process that transmits impulses toward the body
Axon
Nerve cell process that transmits impulses away from the cell body