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77 terms

European Renaissance- Ch. 13

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King Edward III
Son of Queen Isabella of England, King of England who claimed French crown in 1337, which caused the Hundred Years War
Sforza Family
Harshly governed Milan, while calling it a "republic" (Oligarchy)
Medici Family
Ruled Florence during the Renaissance, became wealthy from banking, spent a lot of money on art, controlled Florence for about 3 centuries
Cosimo de Medici
Created first library, discovered Michelangelo, was a Medici
Lorenzo de Medici
Ruler of Florence; great patron of the arts
Piero de Medici
Son of Lorenzo, attemped to regain peace with France and failed
Pope Alexander IV
Reasserted papal authority in authority in papal lands with the help of his son, Cesare Borgia
Cesare Borgia
Son of Pope Alexander IV, Ruler to which Machiavelli dedicated his novel, The Prince
Girolamo Savonarola
Dominican friar in Florence who preached against sin and corruption and gained a large following; he expelled the Medici from Florence but was later excommunicated and executed for criticizing Pope Alexander VI
Charles VIII
French king, invited by Sforza to invade Florence, fought over Italy with Ferdinand of Aragon in the Italian Wars
Louis XII
French King, created League of Cambrai to strip Venice of mainland possessions
Maximilian
German Emperor, worked with Louis XII to strip Venice of wealth
Pope Leo X
Dangerous ally of Maximilian and Louis XII; helped them attack Venice
Charles V
A Habsburg emperor who inherited Spain, the Netherlands, Southern Italy, Austria, and much of the Holy Roman Emperor from his grandfather Maximilian I.
Petrarch
(1304-1374) Father of the Renaissance. He believed the first two centuries of the Roman Empire to represent the peak in the development of human civilization. Thought he was witnessing a new golden age - collected ancient books
Cellini
Gold Smith and sculptor who was certain of his own personal genius that he wrote about in his autobiography so that the whole world might appreciate it.
Pope Nicholas V
Collected thousands of manuscripts and planned the Vatican library.
Pope Sixtus IV
Built the Vatican library
Leonardo Bruni
Termed "humanism" or "new learning"
Cicero
Stated that humanism was needed by everyone who wanted to be considered educated and civilized
Pico Della Mirandola
"On the Dignity of Man" ; man possesses great dignity because he was made as Adam in the image of God; between beasts and angels; no limits to what man can accomplish
Lorenzo Valla
"On Pleasure" ; the pleasures of the senses as the highest good, secularism
Giovanni Bocaccio
"The Decameron" ; accumulation and enjoyment of wealth, secularism
Pope Julius II
Tore down St. Peter's Basilica and commissioned Michelangelo to build the dome; "warrior pope"
Michelangelo
This was an artist who led the way for Renaissance masters from his David sculpture and his painting of the Sistine Chapel ceiling and Pieta
Leonardo Da Vinci
one of the most famouse artists and scientists of the Renaissance- Mona Lisa and the Last Supper, Vitruvian Man, sketched the human skeleton
Raphael
Painted the frescoes in the Vatican Palace, The School of Athens, and St. George and the Dragon
Andrea Mantegna
Was one of the foremost north Italian painters of the 15th century who mastered perspective and foreshortening and made important contributions to the compositional techniques of Renaissance painting; painted Gonzaga family
Strozzi Family
Rival banking family of the Medici's, patrons of many artists
Giotto
Led the way in the use of realism in art
Donatello
Revived classical figure, with its balance and self-awareness
Piero Della Francesca
Known for his use of light and perspective in his artwork
Pietro Aretino
Artist, humanist, satirizer of princes, complimented Michelangelo on Sistine Chapel
Titian
Distinguished artist, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V retrieves paintbrush for him, demonstrating honor/respect
Bellini
"Saint Mark Preaching in Alexandria"
Benozzo Gozzoli
Painted the Journey of the Magi (1459-60) portraying members of the Medici family, with its princes flamboyantly dressed and set against a landscape, creating a fairy tale of the Renaissance.
Castiglione
Wrote The Courtier which was about education and manners and had a great influence. It said that an upper class, educated man should know many academic subjects and should be trained in music, dance, and art.
Machiavelli
Italian political theorist whose book The Prince (1513) describes the achievement and maintenance of power by a determined ruler indifferent to moral considerations
Johann Gutenberg (Fust and Schoffer)
Created moveable type- Gutenberg's bible
Pope Sylvester II
Built the first mechanical clock in the west
Sofonisba Anguissola
A female renaissance artist best known for her self-portraits and for her portrait of Philip II
Ubertinus
Ruler of Carrara
Artemisia Gentileschi
Famous for vivid depictions of dramatic sense and her Judith paintings
Isabella Andreini
Greatest actress of her days in the Renaissance
Laura Cereta
A radical feminist in her time (1469-1499) who had enough education to write about her ideas. She was Italian, and like Christine de Pisan, she furthered her education after her husband died and began publishing writing. Neither women nor men supported her, so she stopped writing after her father died. She did, however, help pave the way for other educated women
Bernardino of Siena and Savorola
In speeches, condemned sodomy (gay, lesbian)
Saint Maurice
a soldier executed by the romans for refusing to renounce his Christian faith
Thomas More
Wrote "Utopia" and condemned society as no good. Stated that a person's improvement mirrors the improvement of society
Erasmus
"Praise of Folly" ; Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe
Rabelais
"Gargantua" and "Pantagruel" humor and satire in writing; wild and gross humor; made fun of church
Van Der Weyden
Flemish painter considered artistically to the Italian Renaissance painters
Van Eyck
Flemish painter who was a founder of the Flemish school of painting and who pioneered modern techniques of oil painting
Jerome Bosch
He was a Flemish painter whose works display the confusion and anguish of the end of the Middle Ages. Jerome Bosch frequently used religious themes, colorful imagery, and grotesque fantasies in his works of art
Louis XI
"Spider King" ; King of France who put down an alliance of unruly nobles and unified France except for Brittany (1423-1483)
Henry VII
Henry Tudor of Lancaster who defeated Richard III. Established Court of Star Chamber, and ended personal armies of Lords
Ferdinand and Isabella
Marriage uniting Aragon and Castile. Together carried out Reconquista and Inquisition of Spain
Charles VII
King of France who was asked by Joan of Arc for an army to save the city of Orleans; doubted her, but gave her soldiers; Created tailles, or land taxes
Henry IV
The first Lancastrian king of England; suppressed rebellions
Edward IV
Defeated Henry VI to become king of England; established some domestic tranquility and brought back monarch after war of the roses
Richard III
He was the last king from the House of York, and his defeat at the Battle of Bosworth marked the culmination of the Wars of the Roses
Henry VIII
His divorce from Catherine of Aragon resulted in his break with the Catholic Church in 1534 and the start of the Reformation in England
Castile and Leon
A single political organization; independent from other principalities of Spain
Pope Alexander VI
This was the pope that granted power to Ferdinand and Isabella to appoint bishops to the Spanish territories and also settled the argument between Spain and Portugal over South America
Philip and Joanna
Joanna was daighter to Ferdinand and Isabella. Married Philip of Bergundian Netherlands to produce powerful dynasty
Durer
A leading German painter and engraver of the Renaissance; praying hands
Copernicus
Heliocentrric theory
Hans Holbien the Younger
A famous artist. He painted a portrait of Erasmus
Boticelli
Renaissance painter, famous works are "La Primavera" and "The Birth of Venus" (firs full frontal female nude since ancient ties, roman goddess, idea of the perfect woman), work is completely secular
Tintoretto
Venetian; tried to unite design of Michelangelo and color of Titian, dissected bodies to learn anatomy
Brueghel
Flemishschool. focused on comma man and landscapes;showed disparity;all aspects of society have value;the beggars;the wedding;the wedding banquet
Rembrandt
Dutch painter, who painted portraits of wealthy middle-class merchants and used sharp contrasts of light and shadow to draw attention to his focus
Habsburg- Valois Wars
When the French returned to Italy in 1521, a series of conflicts broke out between the German and French dynasties
Secularism
The belief in material things instead of religious things. This was a shift away from Medieval thinking and the Church
Pragmatic Sanction
Passed by Charles VII, established special rights of the French crown over the French church - allowed king to control over appointing bishops and depriving Pope of power
Concordat of Bologna
1516 - Treaty under which the French Crown recognized the supremacy of the pope over a council and obtained the right to appoint all French bishops and abbots
Spanish Inquisition
Brutal campaign led by Roman Catholic Church from 1481 to 1834 to punish nonbelievers including Jews and Muslims
Black Death
The epidemic form of bubonic plague experienced during the Middle Ages when it killed nearly half the people of western Europe