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Lion Capital from Sarnath, India

- 250 BCE, erected by Ashoka.
- Legal code based on Buddha's teachings were inscribed on columns throughout the kingdom.
- Ashoka: greatest Mauryan ruler who converted to Buddhism and spread the teaching.
- Pillars connected earth and sky, axis of the universe.

*Great Stupa at Sanchi, India, ca 50 BCE to 50 CE*

- Kushan Dynasty
- Stupas: earthen mounds containing relics of the Buddha
- Walk around relics in clockwise direction following the path of the sun, into harmony with cosmos
- Part of Buddhist monastery, earth and rubble dome
- Yakshi: detail of the east torana- fertility and vegetation - this pose was later used to represent Buddha's mother giving birth

Life and Death of the Buddha, frieze from Gandhara, Pakistan, 2nd century CE

- one of the earliest pictoral cycles in which Buddha appears in human form
- Influenced by Roman models
- Change due to changing perception of Buddha, first was revered as an enlightened mortal but later as a deity- birth, enlightenment, first sermon, death.

Seated Buddha preaching first sermon from Sarnath, India, ca. 450-500 CE

- example of what became a standard image of Buddha
- monastic robe
- eyes down in meditation, holds hands in wheel turning gesture preaching first sermon
- smooth surface conforms to Indian notion of perfect body form and spirituality
- Gupta Dynasty

Bodhisattva Padmapani, wall painting in Ajanta, India 450-500 CE

- among a crowd of devotees
- holding blue lotus flower, shows compassion, richly attired, sensuous,
- Hindu king sponsored the cave, mutually tolerated dirrerences - both have many gods and varying paths

Dancing Shiva, Badami, late 6th century

- cosmic dance with 18 arms, multiple limbs to show they are suprahuman
- Ganesha - elephant
- destroyer, renews
- Bull, nandi

Vishnu Asleep on Serpent Ananta, relief from Vishnu Temple, Deogarh, India, early 6th century

- dreaming the universe into existence
- rock cut, characteristic of early Hindu architecture
- classic Gupta style: smooth bodies and clinging garments

Rajarajeshvara Temple, Thanjuvar, India, ca 1010

- southern type of Hindu temple
- flat roofed mandalas, like it rises from a mountain-> Shiva
- elaborate exterior carving
- garbha griha - sacred chamber at base, houses images of the deity
- temples are where the gods show themselves
- temples conform to sacred shape of the mandala

Visvanatha Temple, Khajuraho, India, ca 1000

- northern style temple, more mountainous looking, natural.
- Mithuna reliefs: erotic couples that symbolize propagation of life, passion is spiritual, serve as protectors of the sacred place

Army of the First Emperor of Qin, Terra Cotta Warriors, next to Qin's burial mound in Lintong, China, Qin Dynasty ca 210 CE

- to show absolute authority
- brought the warring states period to an end by conquering all rival states
- 6,000 terracotta soldiers - individualized

Gu Kaizhi, Lady Feng and the Bear, Period of Disunity, late 4th century

- flourish of secular arts, prestige to the courts, painted scenes and explanatory texts
- Lady Feng saving her emperors life by putting herself between him and a bear: model of Confucian behavior
- Blank background, minimal setting

Vairocana Buddha, disciples and boddhisatvas, Longmen Caves, Luoyang, China

- Tang Dynasty
- sponsored by Empress Wu Zeitan: took over after her husband died, Silk Road
- Buddhism thrived under Tang Dynasty
- Serene majesty, monumental simpliticity

Yan Liben, Emperor Xuan and Attendants, det. Thirteen Emperors, Tang Dynasty, ca 650

- Handscroll
- Confucian ideals, influence in painting that was done in court, principles of painting
- paint as a record of history, showing lives of 13 previous emperors
- Confucianism, learning from history
- hierarchical scale, putting in whats important

Travelers amidst Mountains and Streams, Northern song dynasty, hanging scroll, early 11th century

- Daoist, raindrop strokes
- classic chinese landscape
- small humans, small subject matter - small part of the larger cosmic unity of everything which is central to Daoism, following the Daoist path: clear perspective, atmospheric
- vastness of nature, humility
- emphasis of small stroke

Ma Yuan, On a Mountain Path in Spring, Southern Song, early 13th century

- period of tech. innovation and art innov
- civil service exams - Confucian law
- Elite still understood importance of art, common to combine painting with poetry
- simpler illustration: vastness of nature, empty space-meditative, poem
- peace and unity with nature

Wu Zhen, Stalk of Bamboo by a Rock, 1347

- Yuan Dynasty
- Literati painters: rebelled in the mountains after corruption of govt, scholar painter - not going to deal with secular richness of the court
- concerned with revealing profound universal meaning
- bamboo: bendable but still stands

Forbidden City, Beijing, China, 15th century and later

- Ming Dynasty: where the Ming Emperor lived

Purse Cover, Sutton Hoo Ship Burial, Suffolk, England, ca 625

- animal interlace style: figurative representation, but figures are integrated completely into elaborate, ornamental pattern designs - sophisticated use of working metals
- schematic

Cross and Carpet Page, Lindesfarne Gospels 698-721

- would be at the beginning of the book
- Christian imagery and animal-interlace style, one of the older known Hiberno-Saxon books
- vehicles in the effort to Christianize the British Isles

Chi-Ro Iota Page from the Book of Kells, Scotland, late 8th or early 9th century

- Christ's initials, biblical text into an abstract pattern: making god's word beautiful
- opens to the nativity

Coronation Gospels (Gospel of Charlemagne) ca. 800-810

- Carolingian period under Charlemagne: interested in history, arts. Trying to rediscover examples of classical past.
- illusion of 3d form with light, shade, perspective

St. Matthew from Ebbo Gospels, 839-47

- writes in frantic haste, merge of classical illusionism with northern linear tradition
- lively, energetic, divine inspiration, expressive

Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne at Aachen, Germany 792-805

- blending of different types of architecture, central plan combined with galleries and arcade from T shaped basilicas
- classical rounded arches
- barrel vaults that cross and make groin vaults
- looked to Rome and Ravenna as models

St Michael's, Hildesheim, Germany

- Built by Bishop Bernward, Ottonian design
- big structure for the time, multiple entrances, rounded arches

Bronze doors of Bishop Bernward, St. Michaels at Hildesheim, Germany, 1001-1031

- Ottonian
- see for the first time since antiquity the revival of large scale bronze casting
- clear what is happening in the narrative scenes
- tell story of original sin and redemption
- left side- Genesis, right side- life of Jesus

Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem, erected by Abd Al-Malik in 687-692

- where Mohammad left earth to learn about heaven and return later in Mecca
- influenced by Byzantine, Roman structures
- Dome marked coming of a new religion to the city
- interior mosaics conjure the paradise waiting for Muslims, ornate fauna

Great Mosque, Kairouan, Tunisia, ca 836-875

- reminiscent of hypostyle halls
- tower based on light house, where people would go to pray
- Qibla - direction to pray, Imam: leader of worship

Malwiya Minaret, Great Mosque, Samarra, Iraq

- based on a seashell, spiraling outward - proclaiming presence of Islam in the Tigris Valley: spreading of faith

Great Mosque, Cordoba, Spain, Prayer Hall & Dome in front of the Mihrab

- Hypostyle hall, marked out space by columns and double arches-horseshoe-uniquely Islamis
- intricate and lavish domes, mosaics

The Alhambra, Granada, Spain: Court of the Lions, Palace of the Lions and Muqarnas Dome, Hall of the Two Sisters, 1354-1391

- ceiling looks like weightless, lacy decoration
- fountain with marble lions
- conjure the image of paradise
- stucco ceilings, catch and reflect sunlight

Great Mosque, Isfahan, Iran, 11 to 17th centuries

- 4 mihrabs, niches, only one is domed-the one that points to Mecca

Mihrab from the Madrasa Imami, Isfahan, Iran 1354

- tilework, calligraphy, sacred words of the Koran
- mosaic, masterwork

Koran Page, 9th or 10th century, Kufic script with palm finial

- read from right to left
- united text and ornament

Maqsud of Kashun, carpet from Funerary Mosque from Ardabil, Iran, 1540

- depiction of lamps that would have been hung from the ceiling, dome-shaped circle symbolizes paradise, garden motifs, reflecting pool, floating lotus blossoms

St Sernin, Toulouse, France, 1070-1120

- pilgrimage church, T shaped, ambulatory
- majestic setting for relics

Cloister of St. Pierre at Moissac & relief of Abbot Durandus

- space for contemplation and study, private, beautiful gardens tended by monks
- columns- stone carving tradition from antiquity
- columns show historical scenes that refer to biblical things- but imaginative
- relief carving - blessing, reminiscent of byzantine, message is more imp. than appearance - inscriptions
- schematic but understood

South Portal of St. Pierre

- jamb sculptures on side, christ in majesty as the door to salvation
- lions have an animal interlace pattern
- 24 elder kings: oceans, reaching out to the world

Giselbertus, Last Judgment, West Tympanum of Saint-Lazare, Autun, ca 1120 - 1135

- name of an artist
- diversity of styles
- right hand pointing to faithful while left hand weighing souls

Pentecost and the Mission of the Apostles, tympanum of the center portal of the narthex, Church of La Madeleine

- christ surrounded by apostles
- crusades: taking back the holy lands, spreading the message- diving sanction to the crusaders
- christ is elegant, not intimidating, 8 sections of tribes

Initial R with knight fighting a dragon

- pope gregory's letters to leander of seville, coped because they were significant to the scripture
- R = dear
- noble standing on his squire
- influence of hiberno saxon

Hildegarde of Bingen, Scivias, ca 1180

- visions as a small child, record and share gods word
-process in which she had visions, fiery tongues coming down from heaven into her brain
- volmare- assistant

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