100 terms

arch exam 2

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Captain Cook
made presence of HI known to Europe 1778, went to Kauai, sailed up Pacific coast
Horatio Hale
1840, linguist, compared language of hi to Fiji as central with linguistic traits spreading from there
Sheldon Dibble
Missionary from US 54 yrs before Horatio Hale, published "History of Sandwich Islands" 1835 based on oral traditions of students in HI; connected back to biblical Lost Tribes of Israel, cherry picked grammar similarities to Hebrew
Po
idea of darkness before 1st man and woman believed by HI
Mu
lost continent idea in Polynesian culture
Polynesia
Linguistically is HI, Tonga, Samoa, Easter Island
Melanesia
Fiji, Solomon, Papua New Guinea, New Calidonia- very diverse linguistics
Micronesia
Carolines, Sipan, Guam, Marshall Islands
Sunda
Ice Age landmass of Asia when sea level 400ft lower
Sahul
Ice Age landmass of Australia, settled 40-60,000ybp
Wallacea's Line
Barrier for animal species in Ice Age, deep trench separating Sunda and Sahul even with 400ft lower sea level, too far to swim but can see land
Near Oceania
around PNG, near enough land masses to see other islands, requires less advanced navigation to voyage; populations around for 40-60,000ypb
Austronesian
new language group in the Pacific 6,000ybp, less time compared to Papuan for development
Otto Meyer
1908 Catholic missionary, went to Watum off of PNG finds stylized pottery with dentate stamps, reminded him of So. America and diffusion-theory took over from there. Other reports of similar Lapita pottery unknown to him.
W.C. McKern
1920s Tonga for stratified deposits for Brit Museum, found Lapita pottery but doesnt know of other examples
Lapita Pottery
style of pottery found around pacific islands, connecting and explaining the first voyagers and settlers of the islands; comes from New Caledonia (remote oceania) at 2800ybp and oldest from Near Oceania at 3500ybp
Mulifanua
site where dredging exposed Lapita ceramics offshore; result of subsidence and erosion of Samoa
Papuan languages
diverse group of languages from the Near Oceania region
Point Of Beginning
starting datum on a map; can measure everything in relation to this or in relation to something relative to it. Should stand out and be lasting
GPS
global positioning system; not reliable in dense areas
Optical Transit and Stadia Rod
lens ground to specific magnification with compass for measuring distance; used with stadia rod. measure crosshairs to see distance. Accurate, used by Captain Cook, method used into 1980s
Plane Table and Alidade
table tripod, set to level plane with paper; can measure and draw map simultaneously, combining art with precise measurements. Still used, but bad in weather (rain, wind, etc)
Total Station
surveying robot, bounces signal off of target and measures distance; built in compass, accurate down to milimeters. Only collects points, but fast. May cause some information to be overlooked due to speed and mechanical process. Should spend time with site/go slowly to notice small things.
LIDAR
laser based system of measurement; shoots millions of points, extremely accurate, and creates a 3D image of the site. Still mechanical and fast, so spending additional time on the site is beneficial.
Quadrangle Name
all USGS maps have quadrangle name- rectangles of areas
Adjacent Quadrangles
listed parenthetically or at bottom
Scales
can be 7.5 or 15 minute scale; 7.5 allows for more detail whereas 15 covers more land
7.5 minute scale
refers to latitude changes; from south boundary to north, distance is equal to 7.5 min latitude.
15 minute scale
refers to latitude changes; from south boundary to north, distance is equal to 15 min latitude. Same size map, less detail than 7.5
Scale Bars
at bottom of map, miles and km. ex: "1:24000" so for reality scale, multiply every 1 by 24000. Outlines the relationship of size of map to reality
Magnetic North
constantly moving, where compass is drawn to
Archaeomagnetism
dating technique dependent on location of magnetic north at a certain point in time; shown in magnetic particles in clay that align themselves to magnetic north of the time of firing (kiln, lava flows)
Declination
angle between true north and magnetic north (moves over time) Listed typically at the bottom of a map. Declination changes due to location- bigger declination in Newfoundland than Texas
Contour Lines
shows elevation change on a map ie: brown line: 40ft change, every 5th line: 200ft change
codes
on a map used to denote characteristics like marshes, vegetation, grasslands, BM (benchmarks)
Grids
latitude and longitude
Universal Transverse Mercator System
breaks globe into zones along equator; zone listed at bottom left of map. ie: _______mN, _______mE. starts at SE point and measures East and North from that point.
ANCSA
Alaskan Native Claims Settlement Act, 1971. Because AK was bought from the Russians in 1868, this act called for settlements and reclaimed cultural land; 13 regional corporations and hundreds of village corps. $962.5 mil in settlements and 44mil acres given back
WAMCATS
communication line planned through AK, Canada to US to watch Russia. Plotted along Athabaskan caribou hunting grounds; tribes forced to change behavior, but ended up appropriating the lines into their cultural artifacts.
Remote Sensing
by air, could survey without direct contact with archaeological material; could notice vegetation patterns and go from there
Kodiak Island- Knoll Point
vegetation patterns of cow parsnip vs. dunegrass lead to archaeological sites; cold temp: great preservation- anthropogenic soils
Tuxendi River and Port Moller
fishermen built sheds next to hot springs, found shell middens filled with shells and harpoons
Soil
form in sediments, made up of horizons; organic rich supports plant life, bugs worms bacteria common. Layers don't necessarily mean older due to the many disturbances and
Anthropogenic Soils
soil that origins have been affected by humans ex: Ak cow parsnip vegetation change- more organic rich soil for growth. IE: plowing
Munsell Soil Color Charts
help identify shades of soil and keeps descriptions consistent
Sediments
Particles covering the surface of the planet, more key in startigraphy ie: bedrock breaks apart, creates sand and sediments, organics become clays, desposited different places by WEATHERING, TRANSPORTATION AND DEPOSITION.
Stratigraphy
relative dating, knowing something is older but not by how much
Law of Superpositon
down farther = older by natural processes, though need other dating methods for accurate dating; must understand natural processes and how they may have affected site or how behavior may have altered site
Site formation process
made up of behavioral and transformational processes like natural and cultural transforms
Behavioral Processes
human behavior that create site in the first place and leave marks on the landscape
Transformational processing
things that start messing with the site once created like natural and cultural transforms
natural transforms
floods, volcanoes, gophers, organic decay, fires, draught
cultural transforms
people coming later and messing with site- create new site on old site like building new structures, plowing, looting
Harris Matrix
dating stratigraphy by understanding natural and cultural transforms' role on site
Rapa Nui
Easter Island, known for Moai and society that left them behind. Part of Polynesian Triangle, lacked gold/ceramics traditional in So America, only few stylistic similarities. Oral tradition: more polynesian. 3 volcanoes formed the island
Thor Heyerdahl
Believed Moai ahu creating people to be from So. America b/c too elaborate, had to be from civilized society. Believed they arrived by raft form Peru- proved could happen and was convinced it was true.
Ahu
required resources from all over island
Moai
inland they faced ocean, most faced inland on coast
Ahu Vinapu
fitted stonework, looks incan but developed independent of Incan influence
Rapa Nui Stone Tools
not made by same pressure-flaking Incan ways, made from basalt not obsidian- more like polynesian cultures
Rano Kao
crater lake, used for pollen/sediment cores to track plant life changes and human changes to land- loss of grasses, palm pollens, forrest dev., 1200ad grass pollen again- possibly from rats, possibly from fire...
Rapa Nui society
stratified, had revolt and knocked over moai, started new structure; reused stones from old chief's houses for ovens
Motu iti and Motu Nui
offshore Rapa Nui, often called orongo; known for frigate bird population, had cultural significance in Birdman Culture
Birdman Cult
tradition shift to ritual rather than hereditary status, moe of a competition to decide leader. Replaces Moai building society, 1/2 bird 1/2 man artwork; agriculture: lithic mulching
Lithic Mulching
placing rocks on the surface and land to collect condensation from night till morning, then shade during day. Used in place of forrest; improved productivity
Survey
used to find sites; on surface, easiest to do pedestrian survey/transects
systematic Transects
line up, walk forward at same pace to comb an area; often accompanied by shovel test pits; but part of finding sites
shovel test pits
dug during transects, dig 10-15m, run through screen to find artifacts
Remote Sensing
used in areas you think there might be something; 3 most common: magnetometer, electrical resistivity, and ground penetrating radar
magnetometer
like a metal detector, measures charges in magnetic fields and detects metal; good for finding earth ovens due to their mafnetizing affect on soil
electrical resistivity
2 electrical probes stuck in ground, measures energy ease between or resistance; used to spot anomalies within a site, not used for finding a site.
ground penetrating radar
sends signal, hits hard object, sends signal back- can adjust to sense different types of densities; shows if something is there but doesnt give image -bedrock/natural substrate filled with things: would detect anomalies but not cultural. best used in substrate consistent in composition (ie sand)
Excavation- Humpty Dumpty Principle
once excavating, will never be able to put site back together exactly how it was. In eexcavation, myst know best method: sometimes backhoe appropriate, sometimes dental pick.
Clearing Excavation
horizontal clearing of a site; good for simple sites with one level of strat, can expose diachronic/synchronic
Penetrating Excavation
going down through a site; ex: soil core; good for pollen change
ex: trench- excavating a narrow strip through middle of site
diacronic
looking at change over time; movie
synchronic
looking at information about one point in time (ie: Pompeii) picture
Stripping
good for clearing in synchronic sites, strip off whats covering the one layer
Tell Sites
typical in the mediterranean; villages rebuilding over old, building up a mound of cultural material; very large and complex stratigraphy- cannot possibly expose all at once
Area Excavations
look from top down using grid excavations with balts to preserve stratigraphy. All about preserving context around all sides of the complex stratigraphy
Balts
areas between excavation plots that preserve stratigraphy; typically used in complex stratigraphy scenarios; serves as a map
trench
narrow strip excavation through middle of site yo expose side walls and to show stratigraphy
"Phone Booths"
1x1m unit digs, big enough to et into ex: mayan cities, lots of limestone- cant do core so do 1x1 test pit; some places cant do (fumes build up, unstable ground can collapse)
Geoarchaeology
study of organization of sediments ie: to find sites forlake Lahotan and Bonneville
Lake Lahotan and Bonneville
Navada and Utah lakes from end of ice age; shorelines now much farther in, so any sites are much farther away in desert areas. Using sediment analysis helps
Mt. Mazama
Oregon crater lake; volcanic ash as a timeline- older = below, newer = above layers of ash
Mulifanua
Upolu Samoa, Lapita ceramics site; 3200ybp site now underwater- looking at sediments helps find sites
Zooarchaeology
animal remains in sites (bones, shells, feces)
Pack Midden
crystalized rat urine containing stuff from up to 10,000yrs from families of rats; preserves pollen and environmental information
MNI
minimum number of individuals; used when categorizing bones- if found two right femurs, obv. two different animals at least.
ISP
number of individual specimins; count exact number of all bones of whatever species
Native Alaskan Village Sites- Tom Wake
Fort Ross- community of AK natives brought down by russians to hunt seals 1812-1841; studied bones of seals left behind- mostly flipper bones- traced back to AK culture
Paleoethnobotany- Palynology
studying pollen grains; can identify species of plants around by layers of pollen preserved in wet environments; also study of diatoms and phytoliths
Phytoliths
plant vascular structure where nutrients and minerals pass through and deposit- different plants=different shape of phytolyths; also wood charcoal to look at phytoliths and how they change when burned
diatoms
form of paleoethnobotany; many different types and shapes,
EDXRF
Energy Dispersive x-ray Flourescence; can analyze something and say what it is composed of elementally; not as accurate as invasive methods, but often good enough ex: adze quarry catagorizing; takes less time
Ahupua'a
cultural economic land divisions all over Hawai'i; different areas with different strengths
kohalu'u habitation cave
adze flakes found and analyzed using EDXRF; found adzes not necessarily made by basalt from closest, Hualalai quarry.
Electron Microprobe
outdated due to maintenance required to keep functioning, takes more time than EDXRF, though precise information and more invasive
ANSCA Stipulation 14(h)1
lands given back if cultural