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Chapter 10:Thinking and Language

STUDY
PLAY
congition
mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering and communicating
concept
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
prototypes
a mental image or best example of a category. match new items to the ____ provides a quick adn easy method for including items in a category
algorithm
a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier-but more error prone-use of heuristics
heuristic
a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently; speedier but more error prone than algorithms
insight
a sudden and soften novel realisation of the sloution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy based solutions
-right temporal lobe just above ear
confirmation bias
a tendency to search for info that confirms ones preconceptions
fixation
the inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an inpediment to problem solving
mental set
a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in past
functional fixedness
the tendency to think of things only in terms of their ususal functions; an impediment to problem solving
representativeness heuristic
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relivant information
availability heuristic
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind, perhaps because of their vividness, we presume such events are common
overconfidence
the tendency to be more confident than correct -- to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgements
framing
the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgements
belief bias
tendency for on'es preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid or valid conclusions seem invalid
belief perserverance
clinging to ones inital conceptions after the basis on which they were for formed has been discredited
hindsight bias
looking back on events we falsely surmis that we knew it all along
illusory correlation
intuitively perceiving a relationship where none exists
memory construction
influenced by our present moods and by misinformation, we may form false memories
interviewer illusion
inflated confidence in ones discernment based on the interview alone
mispredicting our own feelings
we often mispredict the intensity and duration of our emtions
self-serving bias
in various ways, we exhibit inflated self-assessments
fundamental attribution error
overly attributing others' behavior to thier dispositions by discounting unnoticed situational forces
mispredicting our own behavior
our intuitive self-predictions often go astray
language
our spoke, written or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning
phonemes
in a language, the smallest distinctive sound unit
morpheme
in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word
grammar
in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others
semantics
set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphenes, words, and sentences in a given language. also the study of meaning (-ed = past tense)
syntax
rules for combining words into gramatically senseible sentences in a given language (ex. adj. before noun)
4 months
babies can read lips and discriminate speech sounds
receptive language
ability to comprehend speech
productive language
ability to produce words
babbling stage
beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language
10 months
can tell household language
one-word stage
the stage in speech development from about age 1-2 during which a child speaks in mostly single words
two-word stage
beginning about age 2, the stage in which speech development of a child is mostly in 2 word statements
telegraphic speech
early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram -- using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting auxiliary words
Chomsky
inborn universal grammar-acquire untaught wrods and grammar at a rate too extraordinary to be explained only by learning priniciples
Skinner
association-sights w/words, immitation of the words others say, reinforcement when child is correct
cognitive scientists
young enfants can learn simple sentence structure, break up syllables, childhood = critical period for learning language
linguistic determinism
whorf's hypothesis that lnaguage determines the way we think
-bilinguals = different sense of self depending on language being spoken
Thinking...
affects our language, which then affects our thought.
Animals can...
form concepts, exhibit insight, use tolls, and transmit cultural innovations, capable of self recognition and comprehending others perceptions
-similar to a2 year old human