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a mental image or best example of a category. match new items to the ____ provides a quick adn easy method for including items in a category
a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier-but more error prone-use of heuristics
a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently; speedier but more error prone than algorithms
a sudden and soften novel realisation of the sloution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy based solutions
-right temporal lobe just above ear
a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in past
the tendency to think of things only in terms of their ususal functions; an impediment to problem solving
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relivant information
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind, perhaps because of their vividness, we presume such events are common
the tendency to be more confident than correct -- to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgements
the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgements
tendency for on'es preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid or valid conclusions seem invalid
clinging to ones inital conceptions after the basis on which they were for formed has been discredited
influenced by our present moods and by misinformation, we may form false memories
fundamental attribution error
overly attributing others' behavior to thier dispositions by discounting unnoticed situational forces
set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphenes, words, and sentences in a given language. also the study of meaning (-ed = past tense)
rules for combining words into gramatically senseible sentences in a given language (ex. adj. before noun)
beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language
the stage in speech development from about age 1-2 during which a child speaks in mostly single words
beginning about age 2, the stage in which speech development of a child is mostly in 2 word statements
early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram -- using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting auxiliary words
inborn universal grammar-acquire untaught wrods and grammar at a rate too extraordinary to be explained only by learning priniciples
association-sights w/words, immitation of the words others say, reinforcement when child is correct
young enfants can learn simple sentence structure, break up syllables, childhood = critical period for learning language
whorf's hypothesis that lnaguage determines the way we think
-bilinguals = different sense of self depending on language being spoken
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