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Terms in this set (166)
who was Copernicus?
a scientist who started the Copernican Revolution during the Scientific Revolution with the heliocentric theory
what was the problem with Copernicus's theory?
he still believed that the planets were perfect circles and they had perfect orbits around the sun
who was Kepler?
a scientist during the scientific revolution that believed in elliptical motion of planets around the sun, or oval-shaped orbits
winter and summer are determined by the tilt of the axis not how far away the planet is from the sun
what two contributions id Galileo make during the scientific revolution?
what is inertia?
an object in motion stays in motion until acted upon by an unbalanced force; an object at rest stays at rest
Galileo invented the telescope.
but he did improve it
what did Galileo see with his telescope?
craters on the moon (important because the church said if it was in the heavens it would be perfect)
what was the Papal Inquisition of 1633?
Galileo condemned by the church and placed under house arrest before being forced to recant
who was Francis Bacon?
a propagandist for science during the scientific revoution
what is important about Bacon?
He praised science so much he inspired a generation of people to pursue its knowledge
what three things did Newton contribute?
2) law of gravity
3) laws of motion
who was Newton?
a scientist during the scientific revolution
what made Newton stand out and able to pursue science in a different way?
he was English, and therefore protestant
who "stood on the shoulders of giants"?
Newton, he took everyone else's ideas and built off of them
Unit 1 Population Increase Short Answer
Before the 18th century, there was little population growth because there were
1) high infant mortality rates-50%
2) the average age of a woman to be married was 25 (they had to want for a parent to die, so there were less pregnancy chances, only 10 years, 6 pregnancies and roughly 3 survivors)
3) the average life expectancy was very low
4) more people died because of disease and war, comparatively
During and after the 18th century, there was a mass of population growth because
1) the average female marrying age dropped to 18 because more people were living in cities and they were run like business propositions, not love. this increased the number of child-bearing years and survival chances.
2) less infant mortality rate and less women dying in child birth
3) less death due to disease and war
4) illegitimacy raised by 60% because people were urbanized and in close-quarters
who was Montesquieu?
an Enlightenment philosophe that traveled around Europe studying politics and political systems in other countries
Who wrote Spirit of Laws?
which country's political system did Montesquieu like best? What did he like about them?
England and their lack of absolutism
Who said we should have a political system based on the separation of powers? why?
Montesquieu; a system of checks and balances created to prevent absolutism
what did the US get from Montesquieu?
separation of legislative, executive, and judicial branches
why does Montesquieu think aristocracy should play a big role in government?
they have been educated (unlike the peasantry), not because of monetary wealth
Who was Voltaire?
a pin name for a philosophe/author and very popular critic during the Enlightenment
who was the most popular man in Europe during the Enlightenment (other than Newton)?
Voltaire; he was a critic
Who was a champion among common people and spoke for the common man during the Enlightenment?
what three things did Voltaire speak against?
1) church abuse
2) religious intoleration
3) absolute monarchy and government
what prison was Voltaire placed in? Why?
Bastille; he was a critic against the church and government
what was the Bastille? what did it represent for the people?
a medieval dungeon that represented torture and the abusive power of absolutism
what type of government did Voltaire prefer?
who believed in "reform from above?" what is it?
Voltaire; if there are changes that need to be made in society, it should be made by the rulers because they should be the most educated, if the government does nothing reform from below (revolution), will occur
who wrote Social Contract?
who was best understood for having strange ideas during the Enlightenment?
who had the idea "society corrupts" during the Enlightenment? Explain it.
Rousseau; civilization, laws, and government have ruined us. We make laws to protect our things, which leads to social classes. These classes lead to jealousy between the haves and have-nots. This creates crime. Private property is therefore the root of all evil.
Who said "Man is born free, and everywhere in chains."
who theorized the "state of nature" in Enlightenment?
what is the "State of Nature?"
before rules, laws, etc, we were free. Hobbes said men were evil in a state of nature, Locke says they are good. Rousseau looks around and tries to figure out if there is a group of free people, hence the Noble Savages
what type of government did Rousseau believe in?
what does popular sovereignty mean?
the general will of the people
who was Diderot?
An encyclopedia-editor of the Enlightenment
how many years did it take Diderot to complete his encyclopedia?
more than 20
why was Diderot imprisoned?
encyclopedia seen as a threat
what was Diderot's encyclopedia?
hand-written collection of essays written by scientists and mathematicians like Newton and Descartes. government saw it as a threat to power, and arrested Diderot as the editor
what is Adam Smith's nickname?
The Father of Modern Economics (during the Enlightenment)
who wrote the Wealth of Nations?
who theorized laissez faire?
what does laissez faire mean?
to leave alone in French
why does Smith think laissez faire will work?
government steps out of economy, or has a limited role because we naturally want to make money, and spend it. if everyone does what they want, more money is made
who criticized mercantilism? why?
Smith; when government gets involved they implement taxes as a part of mercantilism
what is mercantilism?
the government does things to the economy in order to make the country stronger
what does Smith prefer over mercantilism? explain.
the free pursuit of economic self-interest;as humans we are selfish and will figure out a way of profit, therefore helping the economy
the free pursuit of economic self-interest is very common now
what are trickle down economics and who supported this during the Enlightenment?
rich people usually buy more so the more money you make the more money you are giving back to the economy; Smith
who supported the invisible hand theory during the Enlightenment and what was it?
Smith; if the government leaves it alone, it will all work out
who wrote Essay on Population?
what was Malthus's dooms-day theory?
population increased 50% in 18th century, population grows faster than food supply, which most alarmed him, we are on a collision course in history. we will get to the point where we wont have enough food. bad things are gonna happen.
what is the ghost of Malthus?
his predictions have not occurred yet because the ongoing scientific and agricultural revolutions keep us one step ahead. if we cease to expand these fields, we are in trouble
what is the divine right of kings?
monarch is God's representative on earth. so if God gives him power, who are you to question that?
what was Hobbes's view of man?
humans are to be governed because we are evil and selfish and unreasonable "like a lion going throughout the jungle seeking out who he/she should devour"
Hobbes believed in the divine right of kings
what did Hobbes believe was the best type of government?
a strict, iron-fisted one with vicious punishments to keep us in line and absolute power monarchies
what was Hobbes's social contract?
the people need to give up heir rights and freedoms in exchange for the government providing peace and security
what is a social contract?
what role do we play and what role does the government play
who wrote Leviathan? what does it mean?
Hobbes; natural state
who believed the dangers of anarchy are greater than those of absolutism?
who was the champion of democracy?
who wrote The Two Treatises on Government?
what was Locke's view of man?
man is good, cooperative, and reasonable. man has rights and freedoms. man is born free and created equal with rights of life, liberty, and property
why did the founding fathers change Locke's statement on man being born free with the rights of life, liberty, and property?
property involves slavery, an already touchy subject, so they changed it to the pursuit of happiness
what was Locke's social contract?
government exists to protect our rights and to serve the people
who came up with the idea of a legislative body or elected representatives?
what is liberty?
not being subject to the will of another person
why was Locke against slavery and tyranny/dictatorship?
that means citizens are subject to the leader's will
what did Locke believe in regards to equality?
people should have political and legal equality, not economic because that is communism and social classes are inescapable
US founded on which Enlightenment person's teachings?
List out the major concepts and teachings of the Enlightenment.
1) spoke for more rights/freedoms, religious toleration, and equality
2) spoke against arbitrary war, torture, absolute monarchies, power and authority of church, religious in-toleration, and tyranny
What are the French social classes before the French Revolution?
the 3 Estates of the Old Regime
whats the first estate?
Clergy, 0.5% of the population, tax exempt, mandatory tithe
Old Regime based on economics
what is the second estate?
upper class, 1.5% of the population, tax exempt, no tithe but they recieve rents and feudal dues from the third estate
what is the third estate?
peasants and middle class lumped together; 98% of the population that included lawyers, doctors and businessmen
when did the Tennis Court Oath occur?
the Estates General met at Versailles for the first time in almost 200 years to address taxes to help eliminate financial issues,
why did the Tennis Court Oath occur?
the members of the first and second estate do not want change or to pay taxes, so the third estate representatives were the odd ones out. Third Estate representatives were bold and wanted to be called the National Assembly because they represent the majority of the population. so the first and second estate reps lock them out of the meeting hall a few days in. national assembly responds by going to the indoor tennis court to make an oath.
what is the Tennis Court Oath?
National Assembly refuse to leave Versailles until France has a Constitution
what does the King do in response to the Tennis Court Oath?
Louis XVI dispatches a messenger to the assembly, making the message clear they need to stop their tom-foolery or whatever. Assembly says no, and Louis XVI threatens force, which leads to the first radical act or destruction of Bastille
who was Louis XVI?
the king of France at the time of the Revolution, becomes constitutional monarch by force and then tries to flee the country with his wife and son to Austria and Hungary. Then it is discovered he had been telling the two countries the whereabouts of the French army and he is caught and arrested for treason. He is executed for the revolution to live, followed 8 months later by his wife.
who was Robespierre?
one of the most infamous names of France, leads France for a while and ensues the Reign of Terror, arrested and killed during Thermidor
Reign of Terror
France is ruled by small group of people (radical Jacobins and conservative Girondin), a Committee of Public Safety created by Jaconbins under the leadership of Robespierre. network of spies created for enemies of the revolution who are then executed by Guillotine (40,000 in total) felt they had to speed up and take more extreme measures to save the revolution. creating the Levee en Masse or call to arms to raise troops to defeat Prussia
who is one of the most hated women in all of history?
why was Marie hated?
well to start off she was Austrian and Queen of France, who was enemies with Austria. plus she represented all of the over-spending and luxuries the government didn't need...kept adding things onto Versailles
where was Napoleon born?
Napoleon grew up hating France
what age was Napoleon sent to military school?
how many years before the revolution did Napoleon become a military officer
four years, at the age of sixteen
what did Napoleon train in?
What was the Continental System?
France's attempt to strangle the British economy by not allowing England to trade in Europe. Did not work because Russia with drawls from the Continental System
what is the Treaty of Vienna?
city in Austria where people met after Napoleon was defeated
who was in control of the Treaty of Vienna?
what is Waterloo
final battle of Napoleon defeated by England and Prussia in Belgium, sent to St Helena where he died six years later
what started the Crimean War?
Russia moves in to take over Ottoman Empire
what did Russia want that started the Crimean War?
Constantinople and access to Mediterranean Sea through Turkish Straits
who is Otto van Bismark?
"iron chancellor" responsible for the unification of German-speaking states
who is the second most popular German behind Hitler?
why was Bismark called an iron chancellor?
"Not by speeches and majority resolutions are the great questions of time decided...but by blood and iron."
what is a chancellor?
prime minister of Germany
who was Count Cavour?
prime minister of Piedmont-Sardinia; kickstarted campaign to unite Italy
what did Cavour do?
takes military and goes north to south while Gibraldi's Red Shirts conquer south to north, hopefully meeting in center with unified country; try to drive Austria and France out
why did Cavour ally with Prussia?
they defeated Austria in Austro-Prussian war, so they can win again to unite Italy; then turn around and start Franco-Prussian war for more Italian territory; worked
what is imperialism?
the process of conquering, ruling, and exploiting other lands and people
Indian people did not want to be imperialized, what was their resistance called?
give five reasons Africa suffered imperialism first
1) was close to Europe and could not defend themselves
2) has lots of natural resources
3) Africa was considered the white mans grave until the discovery of medical quinine as a vaccine for Malaria
4) Europeans believed they must spread their culture to the less fortunate and ignorant natives
5) magnificent cake of Africa needs to be carved up- King Leopold II of Belgium
where did the French colonize in southeast Asia?
Indochina for rubber plantations
where did the Dutch colonize in southeast Asia?
how did US colonize in southeast Asia?
used Hawaii and Philippines as stepping stones towards Asian markets
East Asia wanted to maintain isolationism
when did China lose independence?
England defeated them in Opium War
what was China's last strive for independence known as?
how did US force Japan to enter modern era?
opening its borders by force of US Navy 15 years after China
who became the first major Asian power? how?
Japan; liked western technology after their borders were forced open
list out the six labor conditions of the first industrial revolution
1) no minimum wage
2) no maximum hours
3) very dangerous working conditions
4) workers enslaved by machines and bosses
5) no insurance
6) no workers compensation
what was Marx's economic theory?
why does Marx say capitalism is wrong?
Capitalism alienates the everybody in society. In capitalist society, the people are constantly told what to get to make ourselves happy. Advertisements try to get the populace to agree that we need something to be happy. Because of human nature, our satisfaction is met only temporarily. Capitalism is thereby inhumane because it makes us want something all of the time. He predicted the Proletariat would start a revolution worldwide and overthrow capitalism, a necessary evil.
who was John Stuart Mill?
man given credit for utilitarianism
what is utilitarianism?
the greatest good for the greatest number
who was Jeremy Bentham?
the actual founder of Utilitarianism; also known for Hedonist Calculus (pain vs pleasure scientifically measured)
what did Bessemer do?
improved iron refining process and made steel more affordable
what did Thomas Edison create?
1) electric light
what did Samuel Morse invent?
the telegraph and Morse code
what did Alexander Graham Bell invent?
what did Marconi invent?
the radio and other wireless products
what did Henry Ford invent?
who was Louis Pasteur?
French chemist that discovered if you heat liquids bacteria dies
what did Pasteur contribute to?
pasteurization and vaccination
what did Lister contribute to?
sterilization and antiseptic
what did Lister do?
apply Pasteur's findings to medicine
what did Morton contribute to?
who was Charles Darwin?
British biologist trying to enhance his field and come up with a way to attempt to explain how lifeforms are the way they are in a secular fashion
what did Darwin write?
Origin of Species
what is evolution?
theory that all lifeforms change or evolve over long periods of time, the change can be simple or complex, new life forms emerge out of previous-existing ones
what is natural selection?
theory that the strongest of a species will survive and therefore breed with other stronger ones, resulting in strong offspring. lifeforms that exist today must have some type of advantage to prevent extinction
what is social darwinism
natural selection and dialectic with humans, Hitler believed in this and tried to speed up the process
what is economic darwinism?
theory that the strongest businesses survive
what is political darwinism?
theory that the strongest countries outlive weaker ones
what is suffrage?
the right to vote
who was Monet?
causes of WWI
2) colonial rivalries
3) military buildup
4) alliance systems
5) Balkan Powder Keg
6) assassination of Archduke Frtanz Ferdinand
Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. Bismark joins, Italy leaves at beginning of war, Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria added and now Central Alliances
French, Russia, and England. Russia leaves. US, Romania, and Serbia added now Allied Powers
Germany goes after France when war starts. France knows they coming. Schlieffen says to go through Belgium to Paris. England joins war against Germany. Invasion stalled at Marne. Battle of Marne occurs. Outflank until they reach Baltic sea on western front and Switzerland on eastern.
whats the treaty of Brest-Litovsk?
Russia under Lenin surrendered and signed. lost a large chunk of and to Germany that included Poland, 1/3 of its European population, 75% of its iron, 90% of its coal
Lusitania caused US to enter the war
Germany tries to get Mexico involved in the war with US so we couldn't enter. sent telegram that was intersected before it got to Mexico so we sent 50,000 troops to the western front. Mexico never tried to gain back territory they lost in 1848 with Arizona, Texas, and New Mexico
list the new weapons of WWI
2) machine gun
4) poison gas
explain Wilson's Fourteen Points Plan's 14th point
install a League of Nations to protect Europe in a coalition to defend against another catastrophic war such as this
whats the Weimar Republic?
as a result of WWI, Germany's prime minister and king taken away and replaced by a puppet government
reparations of WWI
Germany had to pay $33 billion in war reparations for taking full responsibility as stated in the treaty
Czar of Russia before revolution. abdicates when troops mutiny. is eventually killed along with his family, brought an end to 300 years of Romanov rule, longest dynasty in western Europe
a miniature alternative government made up of workers, peasants, and soldiers, or "councils"
radical kicked out and living in Switzerland, and still calls for revolution through letters. Germany captures him and puts him in Russia in hopes he will make them start a revolution. "Bread, Peace, Land" Bolsheviks support Lenin and take him as leader. stormed presidential palace in October Revolution. withdrawals Russia from WWI. moves government to Moscow. War Communism with Cheka. hostile to church. set up NEP, dies halfway through
leads red army in Civil War for Bolsheviks (as opposed to white Mensheviks)
who are left to fight over leadership after Lenin dies?
Trotsky and Stalin, USSR set up
characterized by drama, deep color, and intense light and dark shadows
encouraged by the Catholic Church and it proclaimed the church's power
during and after the Reformation
Catholic branch sponsored the arts, so there was a lot of glorification of the Catholic Church
painter depicted scenes of love and sensuality among mythic gods, goddesses, and cupids. portraiture. interior rooms and family scenarios
drew upon Western classical art and culture (usually Greece and Rome) reaction against Rococo; also had French Revolution and Napoleon
all about emotion and freedom
in part it was a revolt against Neoclassical, Enlightenment, and aristocratic norms
also a reaction against the scientific rationalization of nature and stressed strong emotion
a fascination with the power of nature
strives to portray subject naturally, without idealism or excessive emotion; discard theatrical drama, lofty subjects, and classical forms in favor of common=place themes
characterized by relatively small, thin brush strokes or dabs and emphasis on accurate depiction of light; all about technique
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