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cash crop

a readily salable crop that is grown and gathered for the market (as vegetables or cotton or tobacco)


Large estate farmed by many workers

indentured servant

a person who is bonded or contracted to work for another for a specified time


the most powerful members of a society

subsistence farming

farming that provides for the basic needs of the farmer without surpluses for marketing

Middle Passage

the route in between the western ports of Africa to the Caribbean and southern U.S. that carried the slave trade

slave code

the laws passed in the Southern States that controlled and restricted enslaved people

town meeting

government of a town by an assembly of the qualified voters


People elected to supervise a town.

bill of exchange

a document ordering the payment of money

triangular trade

the transatlantic trading network along which slaves and other goods were carried between Africa, England, Europe, the West Indies, and the colonies in the Americas


a skilled worker who practices some trade or handicraft


someone who organizes a business venture and assumes the risk for it


a person who invests capital in a business (especially a large business)


transactions (sales and purchases) having the objective of supplying commodities (goods and services)

natural rights

rights that belong to all human beings from birth


education that results in understanding and the spread of knowledge

Great Awakening

religious movement in which in the English colonies - encouraged independent thought


the doctrine that reason is the right basis for regulating conduct


17th and 18th-century German movement in the Lutheran Church stressing personal piety and devotion


an evangelistic meeting intended to reawaken interest in religion

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