25 terms

APES Chapter 14

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What are the challenges faced by the Chesapeake Bay?
-water contains an abundance of nutrients, sediments, and chemicals
Where are the nutrients entering the Bay coming from? What are they causing?
-water discharge from sewage treatment and animal fertilizer
-leads to algal bloom
Point Source
-a distinct location from which pollution is directly produced
Nonpoint Source
-when the source of pollution is not a distinct location
Where does wastewater come from?
-domestic used water and toilet waste, rainwater, industrial effluent, livestock waste
What does a high biochemical oxygen demand indicate?
-that a water body is more polluted by wastewater
Explain how oxygen demanding bacteria lead to dead zones
-when microbial decomposition uses a large amount of oxygen in a body of water, the amount remaining for other organisms can be very low
What is produced when wastewater is decomposed?
-nitrogen and phosphorous
Explain what eutrophication is
-a phenomenon in which a body of water becomes rich in nutrients
List some diseases caused by contaminated drinking water
-cholera
-typhoid fever
-stomach flu
-diarrhea
What indicator species is used to test the presence of human waste?
-fecal coliform (ex: E. coli)
-most strains of E. coli live naturally in humans and are not harmful
Why are oil spills such a problem?
-it takes a long time for the oil to be removed from the environment
List the places oil can spill from
tanker (Exxon Valdez), pipes (Deepwater Horizon)
Describe 3 ways surface oil can be cleaned
-containment
-chemical breakup
-genetically engineered bacteria
Why is it difficult to clean up underwater oil spills?
-as water gets deeper, pressure increases
Why is it difficult to clean up underwater coastlines?
-water sprayers remove oil as well as marine life and sediments that may contain nutrients
How does solid waste threaten aquatic ecosystems?
-garbage in aquatic ecosystems can strangle animals
Where does sediment pollution come from?
-30% of all sediments come from natural sources
-70% comes from human activities (construction, plowing, agriculture)
How does sediment impact aquatic ecosystems?
-sediment causes waterways to become brown and cloudy
-reduces infiltration of sunlight which can reduce the productivity of aquatic plants and algae
-clogs gills
-contributes to increased nutrients (eutrophication)
Why is heat considered a water pollutant?
-species in a given community are generally adapted to a particular natural range of temperatures
-dramatic changes in temperatures can kill many organisms
-high temperatures can cause organisms to increase respiration rate
How can noise pollution impact an aquatic ecosystems?
-sounds emitted by ships and submarines can interfere with animal communication
Clean Water Act
-a legislation that supports the "protection and propagation of fish, shellfish, and wildlife and recreation in and on the water"
-by maintaining and, when necessary, restoring the physical, chemical, and biological properties of surface water
-does not include the protection of groundwater
Safe Drinking Water Act
-a legislation that sets the national standards for safe drinking water
-applies to both surface water and groundwater
Maximum Contaminant Levels
-the standard for safe drinking water set by the EPA
-legislation of the Safe Drinking Water Act
-maximum concentrations consider both the concentration of each compound and the feasibility and cost of reducing the compound to such concentrations
Why is clean, safe water a challenge in developing countries?
-developing countries are less able to afford water quality improvements or the costs associated with restrictive legislation
-political instability and corruption often make enforcement of legislation difficult