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Arts and Humanities
The Cold War
Terms in this set (79)
A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted eachother on the battlefield but deadly threats went on between the years 1945 (Post World War II) and 1990
The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea; occurred between 1950 and 1953
Southeast Treaty Organization: Includes USA, UK, France, Pakistan, Thailand, the Philippines, Australia, and New Zealand. Formed to oppose Communism in Southeast Asia
Balance of Power
The policy in international relations by which, beginning in the eighteenth century, the major European states acted together to prevent any one of them from becoming too powerful.
Relaxation of tensions between the United States and its two major Communist rivals, the Soviet Union and China.
Reagan's proposed Strategic Defense Initiative (1983), also known as "Star Wars," called for a land- or space-based shield against a nuclear attack.
Pro-Soviet regime was under serious threat from its Muslim opponents. Soviet forces entered December 25, 1979.
Problem facing the UN: excessive use of the Veto (ex. USSR used it over 100 times). Rose the question of curbs so that no one nation can halt world progress toward security. Americans and Soviets view veto as a last resort to safeguard national independence
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)
John F Kennedy
35th U.S. President. 1961-1963 (Assassinated) [Democrat]. President during Bay of Pigs, and Cuban Missile Crisis. Creator of Civil Rights Act. Other events during his term: building of the Berlin Wall, Space Race, early Vietnam War.
40th US President. 1981-1989. [Republican]. Ran on a campaign based on the common man and "populist" ideas. While president, he developed "Reagannomics": the trickle down effect of government incentives. He cut out many welfare and public works programs. He used the Strategic Defense Initiative to avoid conflict. His meetings with Gorbachev were the first steps to ending the Cold War. He was also responsible for the Iran-contra Affair which bought hostages with guns.,
Policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology. First established in 1947 after Britain no longer could afford to provide anti-communist aid to Greece and Turkey.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an international organization created in 1949 made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries and in essence, collective security
Sphere of Influence
A geographical area where one country, state, empire, etc. is very dominant and controlling. Controlling group often brings their own customs, political ideas, and so on.
the policy of making the military power of the US and its allies so strong that no enemy would attack for fear of retaliation
1956. Led by students and workers, installed Liberal Communist Imre Nagy. Forced soviet soldiers to leave and promised free election, renounced Hungary's military alliance with Moscow. Revolution was crushed by the Soviet Union. A result of Poland's success in getting democratic policies. The US could do nothing to help because they were behind the Iron Curtain.
a prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States
International organization founded in 1945 to promote world peace and cooperation. It replaced the League of Nations.
MAJOR AIMS: International cooperation, maintain peace and security, protect human rights, and promote economic and social progress
Five permanent members (US, UK, France, China, USSR) with veto power in the UN. Promised to carry out UN decisions with their own forces.
Dwight D Eisenhower
34th U.S. President. 1953-1961. [Republican] Nicknamed Ike. General in the US army. During WWII, was supreme commander of Allied forces in Europe. Supervised invasion of France and Germany
Vice President under Eisenhower and 37th President of the United States. 1969 to 1974. Followed a foreign policy marked by détente with the Soviet Union and by the opening of diplomatic relations with China. In the face of likely impeachment for the Watergate scandal, he resigned.
Cuban revolutionary leader who overthrew the corrupt regime of the dictator Fulgencio Batista in 1959 and soon after established a Communist state. He was prime minister of Cuba from 1959 to 1976 and has been president of the government and First Secretary of the Communist Party since 1976.
A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.
North American Air Defence Command, brought the defence of the U.S. and Canada to a joint command to protect against any nuclear attack from The Soviet Union
a U.S. foreign policy adopted by President Harry Truman in the late 1940s, in which the United States tried to stop the spread of communism by creating alliances and helping weak countries to resist Soviet advances
Cold war competition between the U.S. and Soviet Union to build up their respective armed forces and weapons
the first treaty between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics resulting from the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks. Signed in 1977 between the U.S. and the USSR. This agreement limited the number of missiles in each nation and led to the SALT II discussions and a slowdown of the arms race between the two countries.
the political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control
Second Strategic Arms Limitations Talks. A second treaty was signed on June 18, 1977 to cut back the weaponry of the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. because it was getting too competitive. Set limits on the numbers of weapons produced.
The introduction of foreign troops or observers into a region, in order to increase confidence that states will refrain from the use of force.
In 1961, the Soviet Union built a high barrier to seal off their sector of Berlin in order to stop the flow of refugees out of the Soviet zone of Germany. The wall was torn down in 1989.
Russian premier after Stalin. Led de-Stalinization of Russia. A reformer who argued for major innovations. Believed that "capitalism would self-destruct"
Ho Chi Minh
1950s and 60s; communist leader of North Vietnam; used geurilla warfare to fight anti-comunist, American-funded attacks under the Truman Doctrine; brilliant strategy drew out war and made it unwinnable
36th U.S. President. 1963-1969. [Democrat] The US president who privately wanted to stay out of Vietnam but sent soldiers because his goal was to stop the spread of communism. Pushed through the Civil Rights act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
April 1, 1948 - Russia under Stalin blockaded Berlin completely in the hopes that the West would give the entire city to the Soviets to administer. AIM: prevent the west from sending supplies to West Berlin.
treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania. Against democracy, supporting communism.
the policy of pushing a dangerous situation to the brink of disaster (to the limits of safety)
Cuban Missile Crisis
an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.
Was an 1987 agreement between the United States and the Soviet Union. Signed in Washington, D.C. by U.S. President Ronald Reagan and Gorbachev on December 8, 1987. The treaty eliminated nuclear and conventional ground-launched ballistic and cruise missiles with intermediate ranges, defined as between 500-5,500 km (300-3,400 miles). Under the treaty both nations were allowed to inspect each other's military installations.
July 26, 1956, Nasser (leader of Egypt) nationalized the Suez Canal, Oct. 29, British, French and Israeli forces attacked Egypt. UN forced British to withdraw; made it clear Britain was no longer a world power
attempt to force or negotiate settlement between warring factions, often in an internal conflict
Inter-Continental Ballistic Missiles, long-range nuclear missiles capable of being fired at targets on the other side of the globe. The reason behind the Cuban Missile Crisis -- Russia was threatening the U.S. by building launch sites for ICBM's in Cuba.
33rd U.S. President. 1945-1953. [Democrat], Succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt upon Roosevelt's death in April 1945. Led the country through the last few months of World War II, is best known for making the controversial decision to use two atomic bombs against Japan in August 1945. Was crucial in the implementation of the Marshall Plan, which greatly accelerated Western Europe's economic recovery.
Head of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His liberalization effort improved relations with the West, but he lost power after his reforms led to the collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe.
Seized power from Nikita Khrushchev and became leader of the Soviet Communist party in 1964. Ordered forces in to Afghanistan and Czechoslovakia.
First meeting of the Big Three (Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin) in Tehran, Iran between November 28 and December 1, 1943. Agreement to concentrate on preventing the rise of power of Germany. They planned the 1944 assault on France and agreed to divide Germany into zones of occupation after the war
February, 1945 - Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta to make final war plans, arrange the post-war fate of Germany, and discuss the proposal for creation of the United Nations as a successor to the League of Nations. They announced the decision to divide Germany into three post-war zones of occupation, although a fourth zone was later created for France. Agreed to set up the UN to replace the League of Nations. Soviets promised to enter the war against Japan. Germany was required to pay reparations in equpiment, goods, and labour.
The final wartime meeting of the leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union was held at Potsdamn, outside Berlin, in July, 1945. Truman, Churchill, and Stalin discussed the future of Europe but their failure to reach meaningful agreements soon led to the onset of the Cold War: Soviets not yet declared war on Japan, government to represent the Poles, concealed atomic bomb secret.
Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty - The United States and the Soviet Union signed this treaty in 1981 which called for a reduction in the number of long-range nuclear warheads and bombs held by each country by about one-third over a period of seven years.
Strategic Arms Reduction Talks, 1993-94 between USA and Russia to reduce the active deployment of ICBMs, signed between Bush and Yeltsin. Committed both powers to reduce their long-range nuclear arsenals by two-thirds within 10 years
1975, both USSR and the West officially accept existing borders in Eastern Europe. civil rights guaranteed in Soviet Bloc countries
1972 conference between Nixon and the Soviet Union leaders to lessen the number of assault weapons each country has and to repair US and Soviet Union relations.
social process of neutralizing the influence of Joseph Stalin by revising his policies and removing monuments dedicated to him and renaming places named in his honor
The main negotiator of the peace treaty with the North Vietnamese; secretary of state during Nixon's presidency (1970s).
Winston Churchill's term for the Cold War division between the Soviet-dominated East and the U.S.-dominated West.
Leader of the Chinese Communist Party (1927-1976). He led the Communists on the Long March (1934-1935) and rebuilt the Communist Party and Red Army during the Japanese occupation of China (1937-1945).
National Security Council Paper on foreign policy. It clearly named the USSR as a threat to US security at home and abroad because of their development of nuclear weapons and desire to spread communism.
Korean leader who became president of South Korea after World War II and led Korea during Korean War.
Kim Il Sung
Communist leader of North Korea; his attack on South Korea in 1950 started the Korean War. He remained in power until 1994.
deadlock in which neither side is strong enough to defeat the other
the revolution led by Fidel Castro and a small band of guerrilla fighters against a corrupt dictatorship in Cuba
He was a pro-American dictator of Cuba before Castro. His overthrow led to Castro and communists taking over Cuba, who was now friendly to the Soviets.
Bay of Pigs
In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
Churchill's speech accuses the USSR of building an "Iron Curtain" across Europe
Information Bureau of the Communist and Workers' Parties: International Communist movement
This arranged a settlement which brought about an end to the First Indochina war. A ceasefire was signed and France agreed to withdraw its troops from the region. French Indochina was split into three countries: Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam. Vietnam was to be temporarily divided along the 17th Parallel until elections could be held to unite the country.
Ngo Dinh Diem
South Vietnamese president that was catholic and strongly opposed communism. His poor leadership and corrupt government spelled doom
a Communist-led army and guerrilla force in South Vietnam that fought its government and was supported by North Vietnam.
Communist-dominated Vietnamese nationalist movement; operated out of base in southern China during WW II; employed guerilla tactics similar to Maoists in China.
1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
"New Look" Policy
Eisenhower foreign policy that emphasized reliance on strategic nuclear weapons to deter potential threats, both conventional and nuclear, from the Eastern Bloc of nations headed by the Soviet Union
Polish trade union created in 1980 to protest working conditions and political repression. It began the nationalist opposition to communist rule that led in 1989 to the fall of communism in eastern Europe.
an economic policy adopted in the former Soviet Union
This involved high officials in the Reagan administration secretly selling arms to Iran (in return for the release of Western hostages in the Middle East) and illegally using the proceeds to finance the Contra rebels in Nicaragua.
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries; international cartel that inflates price of oil by limiting supply; Venezuela, Saudi Arabia and UAE are prominent members
In 1968, Czechoslovakia, under Alexander Dubcek, began a program of reform. Dubcek promised civil liberties, democratic political reforms, and a more independent political system. The Soviet Union invaded the country and put down the short-lived period of freedom.
Gulf of Tonkin
in August of 1964, United States President Lyndon B. Johnson said that North Vietnamese forces had twice attacked American destroyers in the Gulf of Tonkin. Although there was a first attack, claims of a second attack were later said to be exaggerated or unfounded.Led to the open involvement of the United States in the Vietnam War.
1972; Nixon feared loss so he approved the Commission to Re-Elect the President to spy on and espionage the Democrats. A security gaurd foiled an attempt to bug the Democratic National Committe Headquarters, exposing the scandal. Seemingly contained, after the election Nixon was impeached and stepped down
East German leader against whose regime began the demonstrations that ended in the fall of the Berlin Wall
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