165 terms

Gileskirk Christendom Final Identify Flashcards

Bartolomeu Dias
Portuguese explorer who discovered the Cape of Good Hope in 1488
Vasco de Gama
Portuguese explorer who was the first to sail around the Cape of Good Hope to India; took 23 days there and 132 days back because of the prevailing winds of the monsoons; was made Viscount of India
A triangular sail that could be partially lowered or partially raised and might even maneuver itself; instead of being in a fixed position, it could be attached to a boom that would move to be controlled in accord with the wind. It wouldn't be necessary to turn the whole ship in the face of the land, you could just move the boom.
Prince Henry
Fourth son of King John of Portugal; founder of the Sagres School; known as Henry the Navigator
Hampton Court Conference
1604; Laid out the plan for the King James Bible
Richard Bancroft
Archbishop of Canterbury; assisted King James in the process of developing the KJV; Saw that a new translation could be used as a political tool; reserved the right to edit the final version
Augustus Caesar
Emperor at the time of Christ's Birth; successor to Julius; Initiator of the Pax Romana and the Roman empire
Emperor when Christ was crucified
Lead the sacking of Jerusalem in 70 A.D as a general
The Comnenus Family
The ruling family of Byzantium at the time of the crusades; prominent during the fourth Crusade
Doge Enrico Dandolo
Leader of Venice; Betrayed the Crusader army, manipulated the Crusader army to attack and sack Zara
The Crusader Kingdoms
Edessa, Antiochia, Tripolis, Cilicia, Jerusalem, (and Cypress)
A Byzantine, or Christian, city in the East; Attacked by Crusading forces under the influence of Doge Enrico Dandolo
Boniface, Marquis of Monferrat
Leader of the Frankish army in the fourth Crusade; had close family ties to the royal lines of Europe and the Crusader kingdoms; replaced Isaac II and Alexis IV as co-emperors on the flight of Alexis III
St. Anne's Church
A Church built on the traditional site of the house of Mary's mother, Anne; amazing acoustics architecture, and beauty
Battle of Hattin
In 1187, Saladin defeated the crusaders in the decisive battle of Hattin at the edge of Galilee, the Horns of Hattin its two peaks lie directly in the path that, again, Jesus would have followed every year as he made his way from Galilee to Jerusalem.
Fredrick Barbarossa
emperor Fredrick II of Germany; drowned while trying to cross a deep river in full armor
Pax Romana
Time of peace and prosperity, brought about by Augustus Caesar; led to the quick spread of the gospel
St. Ignatius
Apostolic father; disciples Peter and John; pastor at Antioch; martyred, wrote six letters to the churches as he traveled to Rome
The five patriarchates and their designations
Jerusalem, Mother church; Antioch, Fountainhead of Hope; Alexandria, Safeguard of truth; Constantinople, Imperial See; Rome, First among equals
Laid the groundwork for the defense of faith against accusers
Pastor of the Alexandrian church; established the Alexandrian school of interpretation, which approached Scripture as primarily allegorical and related everything to the gospel
On the Incarnation
Book written by nineteen year old Athanasius in 323 to explain the Incarnation to two young men he was disciplining
Augustine's mother; faithfully and steadfastly prayed for him throughout his life
The bishop of Milan; Champion of Christian orthodoxy; pastor of all of the church-planting pastors in the region; friend and correspondent with Athanasius and Basil
Arx axiom
Fortress of First Principles; school that Augustine set up to establish young men and women still in their formative years with a biblical worldview
Defending the faith; addressing current issues and different topics from a stridently biblical perspective; reasoned arguments in support of something, usually doctrinal teaching
A summary statement of doctrinal belief
the God-bearer; referred to Mary who bore God himself when she carried Christ; a full affirmation that Christ is true God from true God, one in being with the father
The result of the fifth ecumenical council which met at Constantinople in 553; accepted that Christ is a mystery that we may never understand, that Christ is fully God and fully man
The first Germanic tribe to migrate in the Roman Empire in 355; settled in Illyricum and the Balkans
Edict of Milan
Constantine's edict setting Christianity on equal footing with the other religions; made Christianity a tolerated religion, not a favored one
Hadrian's Wall
A wall built in the north of England by Emperor Hadrian to keep the Picts out of Roman Britain
Tribe that migrated into British Sussex in 450
Tribe that migrated from the north, settled finally in Gaulish Normandy
Tribe that migrated into British Wessex in 458
Anthony of Alexandria
An Alexandrian who separated himself from the world, at first fro short seasons of Prayer, but eventually lived in a desert cave to devote himself to prayer and the word; mentor to Athanasius; a hermit
Knights Templar
A military monastic order established during the Crusades to guard the holy places
Benedict of Nursia
Wrote the first monastic rule, which he took home to Nursia, outside Rome; his rule became the basis upon which monasticism grew and flourished
Augustine of Canterbury
Monk from St. Andrew sent by Gregory in 596, with forty other monks to establish a mission to the Anglo Saxons in England
Book written by Gregory while in Constantinople; the book of morals about Job
Hagia Sophia
Basilica; Former church destroyed by the Nika riots; designed by Isodore and Anthemius; consecrated in 537
The Great Schism
The final breach between the Byzantine world and the Latin world when the leaders of the Roman Catholic Church and the Greek Orthodox church excommunicated each other
The Reconquista
The reconquest by Christians of the Iberian Peninsula from the moors, accomplished in 1492 by the forces of Ferdinand and Isabella
Peter the hermit
The most articulate and the most successful of ll he preachers of the Crusaders; from Amiens; a wondering friar, vagabond preacher, who went from village to village to proclaim the hope of liberatin of the christian east; led the Peasants Crusade to disaster at Xerigordon
Ambitious nobleman from southern Italy; trusted ally of Pope Urban; laid a nine-week siege against Jerusalem, which fell on July 15, 1099
Salah a-Din Yusef; 1137~1193; Richards chief rival and opponent; exhibited Christian chivalry
Richard I
aka Richard the Lion Heart; leader of Christian forces during the Third Crusade; a picture of a noble Christian hero; raised in Aquitaine by his mother, Eleanor; married Berengar: chief rival and opponent of Saladin
Bernard of Clairvaux
Instrumental in establishing the Templars; a great preacher, led the monastery at Clairvaux; had direct influence on the election of three popes; preached the second crusade on Easter 1146
Eleanor of Aquitaine
Wife of King Louis VII of France; accompanied him on the Second Crusade; undermined the authority of both Louis and Conrad III; eventually divorced Louis and married Henry II of England; mother of Richard the Lion Heart and King John
King Louis VII
King of France; a leader of the Second Crusade; married to Eleanor of Aquitaine; abandoned the battle for Edessa because of marital conflict
The Medicis
Grand family of Florence; produced several popes in the sixteenth century
Defenestration of Prague
1618; two delegates sent by Ferdinand II to impose Catholicism on Prague were thrown out of a castle window onto a dunghill in protest by the town leaders
Gustavus Adolphus
King of Sweden; fought on the side of the Protestants at the battle of Lutzen, where he died in 1632
An implied comparison, used often in the psalms
A figure of speech in which two things are compared with like or as
Exaggeration for the sake of effect
Five elements of a Psalm of Lament
Introductory cry to God; lament or complaint; petition or supplication; statement of confidence in God; vow to praise or praise of God
Claude Goudimel
1514~1572; harmonized the Genevan Psalms and popularized them throughout Europe; Killed during St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
The Bay Psalm Book
1640, First book published in North America
Conrad III
Holy Roman Emperor who went on Crusade with king Louis VII and Eleanor of Aquitaine; struggled with Eleanor for control; routed; fled with one thousand survivors of his original forty thousand troops
Servus Servorum Dei
Servant of the Servants of God; the title that Gregory took upon becoming a bishop of Rome
Justinian's wife; a former actress; twenty years his junior; marrying her was likely the most brilliant thing he did
The Long Parliament
Parliament that lasted from 1640~1653; called by Charles I, refused to be dissolved without its permission; finally was dissolved after the Restoration of the Stuarts with the ascension of Charles II
Oliver Cromwell
Puritan Member of Parliament; led an army during the English Civil War; became the Lord Protector during the Commonwealth
John Milton
Author of Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained
James VI of Scotland
Became James I of England on the death of Queen Elizabeth I; son of Mary, Queen of Scots and James V
Edward VI
Protestant son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour; reigned for six years; died at the age of fifteen
Paradise Lost
Epic length poem by John Milton, about the fall of man, but also a political allegory about England
The Westminster Standards
Five Documents that came from the Westminster Assembly: The Form of Presbyterial government, Directory for public worship, the Confession of Faith, the Larger Catechism, and the Shorter catechism
Charles I
Stuart King of England until the English Civil War; was put to death for treason because of his ideas of the Divine Right of Kings
The Solemn League and Covenant
Called for a new Westminster Assembly to draft guidelines for the reformation of the nation and the ordering of the church
The Jerusalem Chamber
A building adjoining Westminster Abbey where the Westminster Assembly met
The Restoration
After the English Civil war; the regicide of Charles I, the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell, and the Interregnum of Richard Cromwell, Charles II, son of Charles I, was restored to the throne
The Star Chamber
An unofficial court set up by Charles I; operated outside of the rule of law; vehicle of persecution against the Puritans
Jenny Geddes
Scottish maid who threw her milk stool at Bishop Laud's representative when he began to read a Romish rite at Gileskirk; memorialized in poetry
The Book of Sports
Commissioned by Bishop Laud, published in 1618, later republished in 1633; caused great upheaval in the Puritan world; some argue it was one of the leading causes of the English Civil war; a book that promoted sporting events on Sundays
Salutary Neglect
The policy of the British toward her colonies; because of the wars around the world, very little attention was paid to the colonies; this left them free to develop their own representative republican governing institutions
The Arbrouth Declaration
1320; hammered out by Robert the Bruce, providing rights to individuals, landholders, freeholders, and serfs; reflected in America's founding documents
The Mayflower Compact
The document signed by the pilgrims before they landed at Plymouth Plantation, setting up a representative government, with society based in mutual responsibility and accountability
The Ainsworth Psalter
The first book published in America, in 1625 (barely 5 years after the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Plantation
Deposed the last Western Roman Emperor in 476, the supposed date the empire fell
Nika Riots
Riots that almost brought Justinian's rule to an end in 532, lasting five days and killing thirty thousand people
A young missionary, a generation behind Patrick, who traveled on a series of remarkable journeys to take the gospel to foreign lands
Church Chronicler; Ecclesiastical History of the English People; translated much of Scripture into the vernacular of the Saxons, the Celts, and the Highlanders
Green Martyr
A missionary from Ireland
An Irish church planter and founder of the Iona Community
Chanson de Geste
A grand literary tradition built around the code of chivalry; The Song of Roland is one example; stories of knights, fair maidens, battles, and deeds of valor
The Morovgingians
The ruling dynasty that was deposed by the Pepin the Short who founded the Carolinian Dynasty
The Moors
Saracens; Muslims who invaded the Iberian Peninsula
The Battle of Tours
732; Charles Martel led troops that defeated the Moors and drove them back to the Iberian Peninsula
Roland's step-father; a craven coward, betrayed Roland and his men; finally pulled to pieces by four stallions
Visible cues by which we communicate to other that they have worth
A first class, under lord; an unknighted attendant; helped prepare the knight for battle; an apprentice knight
Someone who received knighthood in the thick of battle, based on the merit showed during the time of the crisis; a field promotion
The first estate; emperors, kings, princes, lords, knights, squires
The second estate
Clergy; patriarchs, bishops, priests, monks, and friars
Those who were left out of the estate structure; Mendicants, lieges, serfs, indentures, bondsmen
The third estate: yeoman, guildsmen, merchants, migrants
The Chivalric Virtues
Trustworthy, Loyal, Helpful, Friendly, Courteous, Kind, Obedient, Cheerful, Thrifty, Brave, Clean, Reverent,
A cube of colored glass; used for making mosaics
Royal hall; large assembly hall; consisting of oblong halls, with narrower, lower compartments on the sides, with columns on the sides
A pigment mixed with glue or egg yolk to create a shine
The pages of an illuminated manuscript, made from the hides of calves
The first composer whose name we know; introduced a second voice; studied and served at Notre Dame in Paris
Means, "one sound", unison; one melody line, and no harmony
Pope Leo X
A Medici, son of Lorenzo De' Medici; pope during the time of the Reformation; received the tonsure at seven, became a cardinal at fifteen and pope at the age of thirty-seven; stood staunchly against Luther
Johann Tetzel
Clergyman assigned to travel through Saxony to sell indulgences to fund the rebuilding of Rome by Pope Leo X
Desiderius Erasmus
Student of Gerharde Groote; itinerate scholar and author; wrote "In praise of folly" in 1509; corrected the Vulgate as a basis for translation into vernacular languages; corresponded with Luther; wrote Freedom of the Will in 1524
A new word
The villain of Othello; deceived his master, Othello
Copying or Imitation
The Globe Theater
A theatrical playhouse in Elizabethan London where William Shakespeare was a player and where his works were preformed
King Louis XIV
aka the Sun King; introduced the practice of the doctrine of the Divine right of Kings to France in his reign, specifically in the suppression of the returning soldiers of the Fronde from !648-1653
Henry VIII
King of England from 1509-1547; divorced Catherine of Aragon; father of Queen Mary, Queen Elizabeth, and Edward VI; separated Anglican church from Rome
Oliver Cromwell
Minister of Parliament; showed military genius during the English Civil war; refused off of the crown at the execution of Charles I; made Lord Protector of the Commonwealth
Charles II
Son of Charles I; restored to the throne in 1660, after Oliver Cromwell's son proved to be a poor leader
Martin Luther
A peasant, born in Saxony to a miner; attended a Brethren of Common Life School; promised to become a monk if God saved him during a thunder storm; Became and Augustinian monk; appointed a founding professor of the new university of Wittenberg; posted the Ninety-Five theses on the door of the Church there, sparking the Great Reformation
Charles V
Holy Roman Emperor, Nephew of Catherin of Aragon, father-in-law of Mary I of England; Presided over the Diet of Worms; fought against the Muslims fifty miles from Vienna
Ulrich Zwingli
1484-1531; reformer who working in Zurich; participated in the Marburg Colloquy; died at the Battle of Kappel
John Calvin
1509-1563; Institutes of Christian Religion; worked in Geneva with William Farel; exiled from Geneva to Strasbourg where he was mentored by Martin Bucer and where he married Idelette; returned to Geneva, where he made the city a center of cultural transformation
Philip Melanchthon
Luther's Lieutenant; professor at wittenberg; wrote 90% of the Augsburg Confession; participated at the Colloquy of Worms
Martin Bucer
1491-1551; studied at a Brethren of Common Life school; became a Dominican Friar and a priest; arrived at the doctrine of Sola Scriptura in 1523; participated in the Council of Marburg and the Colloquy of Worms; went to en gland and helped write the Anglican book of common prayer
Theodore Beza
1519-1605; defender of Calvin and his chief lieutenant; mentored John Knox; advocate for the Waldensians; put in charge of the Genevan academy; succeeded Calvin in Geneva
Cantus Firmus
The tenor line; where the melody was; descants were added above and below the cantus firmus
A processional Psalm
Leonin's student, also served at Notre Dame; added more voices to Leonin's two: First three, and then four
The Black death
aka The Plague; disease that spread via rats, from China to Mongolia and throughout Europe; from 1347-1352, killed 25-75 million people
Hundred Years war
Civil war between the house of Anjou and the House of Valois in France; following the demise of the House of Capet, for the princedoms, dukedoms, and kingdoms that surrounded the French-speaking peoples
Avignon Papacy
The Babylonian captivity of the Church; the papacy was moved to Avignon; including rival popes all excommunicating each other and one another's followers
The Great Schism
1054; The patriarch of the Eastern Church and the pope of the Roman Catholic Church excommunicated one another and one another's followers; this breach has never been failed
The Hanseatic League
A trade monopoly centered in the Baltic cities of Lubec, Bruges, Amsterdam, Antwerp, Danzig, Hanover
The Scholastic Movement
An academic movement that grew from the university system and the ideas of Thomas Aquinas; also influenced by Peter Abelard
Geoffrey Chaucer
Author of the Canterbury tales
Jan Hus
Founder of the Hussite movement in Moravia, leading to the Moravian brethren
Devotio Moderna
English: The Modern Devotion; movement started by Gerharde Groote
Thomas A Kempis
Author of the Imitation of Christ; student of the Gerharde Groote
Arx Axiom
Fortress of First Principles
The Consolation of Philosophy
Book written by Boethius from prison; God reveals himself perfectly in special revelation-scripture-but also imperfectly in general revelation-through creation
Summa Theologica
Written by Thomas Aquinas in three parts: Prima pars, Prima Secundae and Secunda Secundae, and Tertia pars
Occam's Razor
The fewer the assumptions necessary in a thought or argument, the better the thought or argument
Roger Bacon
A Dominican and then Franciscan monk who; systemized the scientific method; called Doctor Mirabilis; called fro the examination of empirical data and the codification of repeated results
Eric the Red
One of the first settlers of Greenland; Lief's Father
Ultima Thule
A Christian Diocese in North America, founded in 1120
A Viking long ship; also called a dragon ship, long, narrow, graceful form clinker built
A Clinker built broad ship, designed to carry cargo; with a shallow hull and a deep keel
All or most of the property and headship of the family devolves on the oldest son
An Iron gate that descended once the drawbridge was up or once night had fallen and the gates were shut; behind or sometimes in from of the vast wooden doors to bar entry into the castle
The Greek Idea of the Chain of Being
The old Greek ideal of the chain of being provided a hierarchy of nobility and also of value
Bodily Humors
The theory that the elements affected the health and personality of people; choleric, melancholy, sanguine, phlegmatic
Jan Milic
Desired to reform all of the life in Prague; Jerusalem Center and Nazareth College were started by him as well as the Bethlehem Chapel; a reformer before the Great Reformation; focused on discipleship and care for the poor
Four articles of Prague
1457; a document drawn up by the Moravian Brethren Churches that laid out four articles of faith an practice; the primacy of the word, the centrality of the sacraments, the integrity of the clergy, and the discipline of the Church
Battle of White Mountain
1620; a battle of the Thirty Years war; Jan Comenius was a chaplain to the troops; while he was serving the men in battle, his wife and son died, led to his leading an exiled community
Pansophic Collegium
Jan Comenius's approach to the discipline of learning; based on the Shema of Deuteronomy 6; theological, literary, didactic, covenantal, atheistic, and historical; marking out specific jurisdictional spheres with an optimistic vies of the future
Principia Mathematica
First addition in 1687; Sir Isaac Newton laid out the principes of Newtonian physics
An object in motion or at rest stays in motion or at rest until acted upon by an outside force
Bodies accelerate proportionally to force, bodies accelerate inversely to mass; force equals mass times acceleration
Actions have equal and opposite reactions; reactions are equal in magnitude; reactions are opposite in direction
A word that comes from the Greek, Metaxis; the middle ground
A slanted part on the outside bottom of the curtain work, or a bridge
A mound of earth upon which a castle is built
Curtain wall
The outer walls, the fortress walls, of the castle
A courtly ballad
A love story, often a chance encounter
A traveling musician and showman who brought entertainment and news from town to town, castle to castle; found mostly at fairs or markets