How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

AP Psychology- Chapter 1: Thinking Critically with Psychological Science

STUDY
PLAY
hindsight bias
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it
critical thinking
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions; rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions
theory
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events
hypothesis
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
operational definition
a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables
replication
repeating the essence of research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
case study
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
survey
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them
false consensus effect
the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors
population
all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study
random sample
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
naturalistic observation
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
correlation
a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other
correlation coefficient
mathematical expression of correlation, ranging from -1 to +1
scatterplot
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables; the slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables; the amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation
experiment
a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (dependent variable)
double-blind procedure
an experimental procedure in which both the research participant and the research staff are ignorant about whether the participants have received the treatment or a placebo
placebo effect
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent
experimental condition
the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable
control condition
the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
random assignment
assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
independent variable
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
dependent variable
the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
mode
the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution
mean
the arithmetic average of a distribution
median
the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it
range
the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
standard deviation
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
statistical significance
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
culture
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
stratified sample
a sample that is deliberately drawn from the population based on identified characteristics of the population, such as gender, race, age
illusory correlation
the perception of a relationship where none exists
treatment
a form of experimentation in which an active agent or behavior is believed to trigger the effects characterized by the active agent
single-blind procedure
an experimental procedure in which the research participants are ignorant about whether they have received the placebo or the treatment