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threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes. Only found in Eukaryotes

Evolutionary Origin of Mitochondria and Organelles

Advanced phagocyte Prokaryotes englufed bacterium. These became the membrane bound organelles

Problems with Evolutionary Origin of Mitochondria and Organelles

All modern Prokaryotes are not phagocytes. They all have cell walls

Systemic Lupus

chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease of collagen in the skin, of joints, and of internal organs


antiprotozoal medication (trade name Flagyl) used to treat trichomoniasis and giardiasis
Can cause susceptibility to Systemic Lupus


a mutually beneficial relationship in which one organism lives within another
Also, Process through which early prokaryotic cells are thought to have engulfed other, smaller cells and eventually incorporated them as organelles; these cells evolved into modern-day eukaryotes.


Example of symbiosis:
Cynobacterium --Engulfed in-->
Algae --Engulfed in-->


Nucleus of enslaved creature


bacteria and mitochondira put formal group (f) on their Amino Acids
f is a chemoattractant

Diphtheria Toxin

Inhibits eukaryotic ribosomes, not prokaryotic ribosomes

Endosymbiotic Theory

theory that eukaryotic cells formed from a symbiosis among several different prokaryotic organisms.

For Endosymbiotic Theory

Both mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own protein-synthesizing machinery, and it resembles that of prokaryotes, not eukaryotes.

For Endosymbiotic Theory

Both mitochondria and chloroplasts can arise only from preexisting mitochondria and chloroplasts. They cannot be formed in a cell that lacks them because nuclear genes encode only some of the proteins of which they are made.

For Endosymbiotic Theory

Both mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own genome (DNA) and it resembles that of prokaryotes not that of the nuclear genome.
- Both genomes consist of a single circular molecule of DNA
- There are no histones associated with the DNA

For Endosymbiotic Theory

Mitochondria and chloroplast rRNA and structures of their ribosome resemble those of prokaryotes, not eukaryotes
- Anti-prokaryote antibiotics can effect mitochondria of Eukaryotes

Antibiotics that Support the Endosymbiotic Theory

Diphtheria Toxin


acts by blocking protein synthesis by eukaryotic ribosomes, but does not interfere with protein synthesis within mitochondria and chloroplasts. They do not interfere with protein synthesis within mitochondria and chloroplasts

Diphtheria Toxin

inhibits synthesis by eukaryotic ribosomes. but does not have any effect on bacterial protein synthesis nor on protein synthesis within mitochondria and chloroplasts


inhibits the RNA polymerase of bacteria, also inhibits the RNA polymerase within mitochondria. It has no such effect on the RNA polymerase within the eukaryotic nucleus

For the Endosymbiotic Theory

When a eukaryotic cell divides, the mitochondria also divide separately

Against Endosymbiotic Theory

Mitochondria require Eukaryotic DNA for function
- they also require the splicing protein complex

Against Endosymbiotic Theory

Eukaryotes, Mitochondria, and Chloroplasts have Exon and Inton sections in their DNA
Prokaryotes only have Exon

Golgi Complex

organelle that modifies, packages, and transports material out of the cell.


A microbody containing enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen, producing and then degrading hydrogen peroxide.


A solid rod of actin protein in the cytoplasm of almost all eukaryotic cells, making up part of the cytoskeleton, allows cell to change shape and acting alone or with myosin to cause cell contraction.


an organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs


An organelle that functions in the synthesis of proteins

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

An endomembrane system where lipids are synthesized, calcium levels are regulated, and toxic substances are broken down.

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

A large system of folded membranes within a eukaryotic cell that has ribosomes bound to it, giving a rough appearnce. These ribosomes synthesize proteins that will ultimately be secreted from the cell, incorporated into the plasma membrane, or transported to the Golgi apparatus or lysosome.

Plasma membrane

a phospholipid bilayer that surrounds a cell and serves as a barrier between the cell and its surroundings

Cell wall

strong supporting layer around the cell membrane in plants, algae, and some bacteria


a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction


a long, hairlike structure that grows out of a cell and enables the cell to move

Basal body

A eukaryotic cell organelle consisting of a 9 + 0 arrangement of microtubule triplets; may organize the microtubule assembly of a cilium or flagellum; structurally identical to a centriole.
anchoring structure that the microtubule assembly extends to. It has a pattern of nine microtubule triplets

Eukaryotes that cause disease

Previously thought to be Amotiochondrial
- Diplomonads (Giardia)
- Microsporidia (Encephalitozon)
- Parabasalids (Trichomonas)

Giardia (Diplomonad)

has a disk that attacks to human intestine
causes Giardiasis


infects 2.5 million/yr.
Found in "natural water sources"
Also known as Beaver Fever
can infect at low dose (contrast with Cholera)
Our body can build up immunity


Fungal (used to be thought of as a Protozoan
Opportunistic (requires a compromised immune system for infection)
shoots spores with tubule (This Polar Tubule is essential for invasion into cells)


Virulence factors cause inflammation
carried by Men (usually asymptomatic but can cause irritation) and women (discharge)

Lack of Oxygen (Anaerobic) causes:

not enough Oxygen so Pyruvate or Lactic Acid is produced instead of CO2

Lactose Fermentors

measured by CO2 presence and pH (Protons or Lactic Acid)


= 1 flagella


= multiple flagella in the same area


= 2 flagella; the flagella are on opposite ends of the cell


= multiple flagella pointing in many directions/located at many spots on the cell.

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