How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

45 terms

Medical Micro Biology Exam III

STUDY
PLAY
Chromosomes
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes. Only found in Eukaryotes
Evolutionary Origin of Mitochondria and Organelles
Advanced phagocyte Prokaryotes englufed bacterium. These became the membrane bound organelles
Problems with Evolutionary Origin of Mitochondria and Organelles
All modern Prokaryotes are not phagocytes. They all have cell walls
Systemic Lupus
chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease of collagen in the skin, of joints, and of internal organs
Metronidazole
antiprotozoal medication (trade name Flagyl) used to treat trichomoniasis and giardiasis
Can cause susceptibility to Systemic Lupus
Endosymbiosis
a mutually beneficial relationship in which one organism lives within another
Also, Process through which early prokaryotic cells are thought to have engulfed other, smaller cells and eventually incorporated them as organelles; these cells evolved into modern-day eukaryotes.
Eyespot
Example of symbiosis:
Cynobacterium --Engulfed in-->
Algae --Engulfed in-->
Protozoan
Nucleomorph
Nucleus of enslaved creature
f-Methylinen
bacteria and mitochondira put formal group (f) on their Amino Acids
f is a chemoattractant
Diphtheria Toxin
Inhibits eukaryotic ribosomes, not prokaryotic ribosomes
Endosymbiotic Theory
theory that eukaryotic cells formed from a symbiosis among several different prokaryotic organisms.
For Endosymbiotic Theory
Both mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own protein-synthesizing machinery, and it resembles that of prokaryotes, not eukaryotes.
For Endosymbiotic Theory
Both mitochondria and chloroplasts can arise only from preexisting mitochondria and chloroplasts. They cannot be formed in a cell that lacks them because nuclear genes encode only some of the proteins of which they are made.
For Endosymbiotic Theory
Both mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own genome (DNA) and it resembles that of prokaryotes not that of the nuclear genome.
- Both genomes consist of a single circular molecule of DNA
- There are no histones associated with the DNA
For Endosymbiotic Theory
Mitochondria and chloroplast rRNA and structures of their ribosome resemble those of prokaryotes, not eukaryotes
- Anti-prokaryote antibiotics can effect mitochondria of Eukaryotes
Antibiotics that Support the Endosymbiotic Theory
Streptomycin
Diphtheria Toxin
Rifampicin
Streptomycin
acts by blocking protein synthesis by eukaryotic ribosomes, but does not interfere with protein synthesis within mitochondria and chloroplasts. They do not interfere with protein synthesis within mitochondria and chloroplasts
Diphtheria Toxin
inhibits synthesis by eukaryotic ribosomes. but does not have any effect on bacterial protein synthesis nor on protein synthesis within mitochondria and chloroplasts
Rifampicin
inhibits the RNA polymerase of bacteria, also inhibits the RNA polymerase within mitochondria. It has no such effect on the RNA polymerase within the eukaryotic nucleus
For the Endosymbiotic Theory
When a eukaryotic cell divides, the mitochondria also divide separately
Against Endosymbiotic Theory
Mitochondria require Eukaryotic DNA for function
- they also require the splicing protein complex
Against Endosymbiotic Theory
Eukaryotes, Mitochondria, and Chloroplasts have Exon and Inton sections in their DNA
Prokaryotes only have Exon
Golgi Complex
organelle that modifies, packages, and transports material out of the cell.
Peroxisome
A microbody containing enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen, producing and then degrading hydrogen peroxide.
Microfilament
A solid rod of actin protein in the cytoplasm of almost all eukaryotic cells, making up part of the cytoskeleton, allows cell to change shape and acting alone or with myosin to cause cell contraction.
Chloroplast
an organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs
Ribosome
An organelle that functions in the synthesis of proteins
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
An endomembrane system where lipids are synthesized, calcium levels are regulated, and toxic substances are broken down.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
A large system of folded membranes within a eukaryotic cell that has ribosomes bound to it, giving a rough appearnce. These ribosomes synthesize proteins that will ultimately be secreted from the cell, incorporated into the plasma membrane, or transported to the Golgi apparatus or lysosome.
Plasma membrane
a phospholipid bilayer that surrounds a cell and serves as a barrier between the cell and its surroundings
Cell wall
strong supporting layer around the cell membrane in plants, algae, and some bacteria
Nucleus
a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction
Flagellum
a long, hairlike structure that grows out of a cell and enables the cell to move
Basal body
A eukaryotic cell organelle consisting of a 9 + 0 arrangement of microtubule triplets; may organize the microtubule assembly of a cilium or flagellum; structurally identical to a centriole.
anchoring structure that the microtubule assembly extends to. It has a pattern of nine microtubule triplets
Eukaryotes that cause disease
Previously thought to be Amotiochondrial
- Diplomonads (Giardia)
- Microsporidia (Encephalitozon)
- Parabasalids (Trichomonas)
Giardia (Diplomonad)
Non-fungal
has a disk that attacks to human intestine
causes Giardiasis
Giardiasis
infects 2.5 million/yr.
Found in "natural water sources"
Also known as Beaver Fever
can infect at low dose (contrast with Cholera)
Our body can build up immunity
Microsporidia
Fungal (used to be thought of as a Protozoan
Opportunistic (requires a compromised immune system for infection)
shoots spores with tubule (This Polar Tubule is essential for invasion into cells)
Parabasalids
Non-fungal
STD
Virulence factors cause inflammation
carried by Men (usually asymptomatic but can cause irritation) and women (discharge)
Lack of Oxygen (Anaerobic) causes:
not enough Oxygen so Pyruvate or Lactic Acid is produced instead of CO2
Lactose Fermentors
measured by CO2 presence and pH (Protons or Lactic Acid)
Monotrichous
= 1 flagella
Lophotrichous
= multiple flagella in the same area
Amphitrichous
= 2 flagella; the flagella are on opposite ends of the cell
Peritrichous
= multiple flagella pointing in many directions/located at many spots on the cell.