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75 terms

Nutrition and health science

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Nutrition
The science that links food to health and disease. It includes the process by which food substance are ingested and digested.
Nutrient
a substance in food that provides energy or helps form body tissues and that is necessary for life and growth. Also, they act as building blocks provides energy, help repair and maintain body, supports growth
Essential Nutrients
Nutrients that our bodies can't make or can't make in sufficent amounts, must be obtained form food.
65
what age you will have eaten 70,000 meals and 50 tons
Malnutrition
andy condition caused by a deficiency or excess of nutrient intake. also obiciety is considered malnutrition
Cronic
Many nutrition related deseases are considere_____________
poor diet, cardiovascular disease, Hypertension, diabetes, cancer, obesity, osteoprosis others
list some causes of disease due to bad nutriton? (7)
Carbohydrats, Protiens, lipids, Vitamens, minerals, water
6 classes of essential nutrients?
what essential nutrient is inorganic, with no carbon?
Minearls
phytochemicals
Chemicals in plant-based foods that are not nutrients but that have effects on the body.
carotenids, revoratrol, flavanids, isoflabanes.
some exampales of phytochemicals?
SUN
where energy comes from
Calorie
measure of energy in nutrients
4 kcal/gm
calories in carbohdrates
4 kcal/gm
calories in protiens
9 kcal/gm
calories in fat
Notes
Review how to find amount of calories
7 kcal/gm
calories in alcohol
44-65%
amount of carbs recomended in a day
10-35%
amount of protien recomended in a day
20-35%
amount of fats recomended in a day
hunger
a physiological drive to eat
appetite
a psychological drive to eat
satiety
feeling of being full,, the state of being satisfactorily full and unable to take on more
The challange of choseing foods
what is this statment called: There are more fod to choose from than ever before, but ironicly it is harder to keep a diet cause of it.
Overnutriton
can be toxic to the body, and can cause few symptoms like obesity.
by physician and dietition
who measures nutritional state?
Anthropometric, biochemical, clinical, dietary, economics
ABCDE stands for what
Limitations
A long time may elapse between initial development of poor nutrient and first clinical evidence of a problem
4 food groups
in 1950 how many usad aproved food groups were there?
food pyramid
in 1992 there was a plan that illistrated the foods you need to eat, this was called
grains 1oz
how much grain does my pyramid tell you to eat
1oz
how much meat does my pyramid tell you to eat
milk 1 cup
how much milk should you drink in my pyramind
i cup
how many vegs should you eat wiht my pyramid
serving size, total calories, maufactores
Nutrition fact panel list a couple of things(3)
good source
a serving containing 10-19% of dv
excelent source
a serving conting 20% or more of dv
fat free
less thank .5 gramsof fat per serving
low fat
No more than 3gms per serving
reduced fat
25% less fat than food it is being compared to
ramdomized
most regeries type of study
double blind
placebo controlled study, in which the reciever dosen't know.
food philosophy
consume a varity of foods balancing by a moderate intake of each food.
adequacy
the dietary characteristic of providing all of the essential nutrients, fiber, and energy in amounts sufficient to maintain health and body weight
balance
where you pick and choose food in order to replinish your body wiht nutrients.
moderation
where you eat a low amount of foods to stay safe.
variety
eat lots of different foods in order to get all the nutrients of your body to function
salt =
= Clestoral
grain, fruit, veg, milk, meats and beans, oils
a good 6 group food balacnce consit of ?
cell
basic unit of life, self-contained.
cell membrane
thin, flexible barrier around a cell; regulates what enters and leaves the cell
cytoplasm
a jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended
mitochondria
the organelles in which nutrients are converted to energy
low nutrient density
junk food or empty calories
energy density
caloric content of food per gram.foods whith higher water and fiber have a low______
Nutrient density
the amount of nutrients relative to the number of calories they provide
cell nucleus
a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction
endoplasm reticulme
smooth, rough, where protiens are made
golgi
apparatus organelle in eukaryotic cells with a sustem of flattened tubular membranes it sorts and packs proteins and sends them to where their suppose to go
lysosomes
An organelle containing digestive enzymes
peroxisomes
membranous sacs containing enzymes used to break down hydrogen peroxide
difussion
way nutrients get in and out of the cell
facilitated diffusion
no energy, the movement of molecules across a membrane with the help of protein molecules
active transport
The movement of materials through a cell membrane using cellular energy
red blood cells
what cells don't have a miticondria
arteries
blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart
veins
blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart
lymphatic system
the interconnected system of spaces and vessels between body tissues and organs by which lymph circulates throughout the body
portal system
when blood flows through two consecutive capillary networks before returning to the heart such as in the hypothalamus-anterior pituitary, the kidneys, and in the liver, what is this called?
capillaries
pipes, tiny, thin-walled blood vessels that allow the exchange of gases and nutrients between the blood and the cells of the body
secretean
release bicarbonate from pancrease
esophageal sphincter
muscle at the upper or lower end of the esophagus that prevents backflow
peristalsis
involuntary waves of muscle contraction that keep food moving along in one direction through the digestive system
Cholecystokinin
hormone the small intestine secretes to stimulate release of pancreatic juice from pancreas and bile from gallbladder