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Urban Liberalism

this is what historians have come to describe the drive for social justice, as it almost always focused in American cities and involved members of the working-class

Jospehine Shaw Lowell of New York

after many years of charity work, she concluded that it was not enough to give assistance to the poor, but rather that people should save them before they go under. She founded the New York Consumers League in 1890, which was dedicated to improving wages and working conditions of female clerks in city stores.

White List

this was a list of shops that met the New York Consumer's league's standards for a living wage and decent working conditions for clerks, that put pressure on store owners

National Consumers League

This was led by Florence Kelley and was founded when woman reformers concluded that voluntary action was insufficient, and that only state action could meet the most pressing problems of the poor. This became a powerful lobby for protective legislation for women and children.

Woman's Trade Union League

established in 1903, this contributed to the emergence of legitimate working-class women leaders, as social reformers wished to encourage working women to help themselves

Rose Schneiderman

she became a union organizer among garment workers in NY and a lobbyist for protective legislation

Agnes Nestor

she led the women glove workers in Illinois and became a lobbyist for protective legislation

Alice Paul

She'd lived in Britain and witnessed the tactics of British suffragists first-hand. She rejected the slow enfranchisement by individual state action and founded the militant National Woman's party

National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA)

this was led by Carrie Chapman and advocated enfranchisement through individual state action

Marie Jennings Howe

She spoke for the new generation of women suffragists who were self-supporting and had no intention of accepting the traditional idea of the "separate sphere" and wished to "Break into the Human Race"


this at first meant freedom for full personal development- to pursue a career, from the traditional double standard in sexual morality, and from social convention, and especially freedom from the stereotypes of woman's separate sphere. They did not wish the right to vote simply for the morality of politics, but because they felt themselves full equals of men

Charlette Perkins Gilmore

she advocated communal kitchens as a means for liberating women from homemaking

Margaret Sanger

she was a proponent of birth control

The Great Migration

this was the movement of African-Americans to northern cities that began around 1900 and it represented the most significant development for blacks in the years 1910-1930

D.W. Griffith's Birth of a Nation

this was a film that depicted Reconstruction in the South as a moral struggle between rampaging childlike blacks and a chivalrous Klu Klux Klan

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