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31 terms

DNA Structure & Replication

Chapter 9
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DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid
nucleotides
5 carbon sugar, deoxyribose; nitrogenous base; phosphate (PO4)group
1
__' position: where the N base is bonded
3
__' position: where nucleotides are added during DNA Replication (Synthesis)
5
___' position: where the phosphate groups is bonded
individual strands
individual nucleotides are bonded together when phosphate group (on 5' of one nucleotide) reacts with OH group (on 3' end of another) to form a phosphodiester bond.
complementary base bonding
2 strands bonded with H bonds between complementary bases
anti-parallel
2 strands are always _______, one strands 5' to 3' and the other runs 3' to 5'.
helix structure
5 bases per full 360*
histone, nucleosome
DNA wraps around groups of _____ proteins forming _____
chromatin
DNA that is wrapped around histones that coils forming _______ can be seen in Interphase
scaffold
the chromatin coils again around a _____ protein forming the condensed chromosome seen in mitosis
DNA Synthesis
occurs during S phase; unreplicated chromosomes become replicated
semi-conservative
the mode of DNA replication is termed _____ meaning: two strands of existing DNA each serve as a "template" for new DNA strand, and each new DNA strand bonds to it's "template" forming a complete new molecule of DNA
hilicase
binds to origin and unwinds parental (template) strands
binding proteins
stabilizes separate strands
primase
lays down short RNA primer on template strand
DNA polymerase
bonds new nucleotides to the new strand being synthesized. Always adds to the 3' end. Identifies, removes and replaces incorrect bases added.
exonuclease
removes RNA primer and replaces with correct DNA nucleotides
ligase
joins okazarki fragments and seals other nicks in sugar-phosphate backbone
PCR
Polymerase Chain Reaction: method of artificially replicating a specific segment of DNA from a small initial quantity. DNA replication done in "Test Tube" can make millions of copies quickly
PCR devices
thermal cycler, microscopic layers of heated and cooled silicon. these are uesed in ______
transcription-mediated amplification
copies of DNA to RNA and uses RNA polymerase to amplify RNA. 10 billion copies in 30 minutes
PCR Methodology
matireals: DNA template, primers, nucleotides, and dna polymerase. Process: 1. denaturation, 2. annealling, 3. extension
DNA template
In PCR methodology: __________ - the DNA piece to be amplified
primers
In PCR methodology: __________-one complementary strand to each strand (made of DNA not RNA)
nucleotides
In PCR methodology: _________- A, G, C, and T
DNA polymerase
In PCR methodology: __________- heat stable form (from thermophilic bacteria)
Denaturation
In PCR methodology: _________ - DNA template is ________ (2 strands separated) with high heat
Annealing
In PCR methodology: ________ - Each DNA primer anneals, binding to its complementary sequence on the themplate DNA
Extension
In PCR methodology: _______ - DNA polymerase creates a new strand of DNA complementary to the template DNA, starting from the primer