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Chapter 9


Deoxyribonucleic acid


5 carbon sugar, deoxyribose; nitrogenous base; phosphate (PO4)group


__' position: where the N base is bonded


__' position: where nucleotides are added during DNA Replication (Synthesis)


___' position: where the phosphate groups is bonded

individual strands

individual nucleotides are bonded together when phosphate group (on 5' of one nucleotide) reacts with OH group (on 3' end of another) to form a phosphodiester bond.

complementary base bonding

2 strands bonded with H bonds between complementary bases


2 strands are always _______, one strands 5' to 3' and the other runs 3' to 5'.

helix structure

5 bases per full 360*

histone, nucleosome

DNA wraps around groups of _____ proteins forming _____


DNA that is wrapped around histones that coils forming _______ can be seen in Interphase


the chromatin coils again around a _____ protein forming the condensed chromosome seen in mitosis

DNA Synthesis

occurs during S phase; unreplicated chromosomes become replicated


the mode of DNA replication is termed _____ meaning: two strands of existing DNA each serve as a "template" for new DNA strand, and each new DNA strand bonds to it's "template" forming a complete new molecule of DNA


binds to origin and unwinds parental (template) strands

binding proteins

stabilizes separate strands


lays down short RNA primer on template strand

DNA polymerase

bonds new nucleotides to the new strand being synthesized. Always adds to the 3' end. Identifies, removes and replaces incorrect bases added.


removes RNA primer and replaces with correct DNA nucleotides


joins okazarki fragments and seals other nicks in sugar-phosphate backbone


Polymerase Chain Reaction: method of artificially replicating a specific segment of DNA from a small initial quantity. DNA replication done in "Test Tube" can make millions of copies quickly

PCR devices

thermal cycler, microscopic layers of heated and cooled silicon. these are uesed in ______

transcription-mediated amplification

copies of DNA to RNA and uses RNA polymerase to amplify RNA. 10 billion copies in 30 minutes

PCR Methodology

matireals: DNA template, primers, nucleotides, and dna polymerase. Process: 1. denaturation, 2. annealling, 3. extension

DNA template

In PCR methodology: __________ - the DNA piece to be amplified


In PCR methodology: __________-one complementary strand to each strand (made of DNA not RNA)


In PCR methodology: _________- A, G, C, and T

DNA polymerase

In PCR methodology: __________- heat stable form (from thermophilic bacteria)


In PCR methodology: _________ - DNA template is ________ (2 strands separated) with high heat


In PCR methodology: ________ - Each DNA primer anneals, binding to its complementary sequence on the themplate DNA


In PCR methodology: _______ - DNA polymerase creates a new strand of DNA complementary to the template DNA, starting from the primer

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