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Quiz - AP Gov't - Chapter 9 - 12
Terms in this set (75)
A group that seeks to elect candidates to public office by supplying them with a label--a "party identification"--by which they are known to the electorate
mugwumps or progressives
A Republican faction in the 1890s to the 1910s composed of reformers who opposed the use of patronage and party bosses and favored the leadership of experts
critical or realigning periods
A period of time during which a sharp, lasting shift occurs in the popular coalition supporting one or both parties.
Voting for candidates of different parties for various offices in the same election
Voting for candidates who are all of the same party
A meeting of party delegates elected in state primaries, caucuses, or conventions that is held every four years to nomincate a presidential candidate.
congressional campaign committee
A party committee in Congress that provides funds to members who are running for reelection or to would-be members who are running for an open seat or challenging a candidate from the opposition party
Party leaders and elected officials who become delegates to the national convention without having to run in primaries or caucuses
A party organization that recruits its members by dispensing patronage--tangible incentives--and that is characterized by a high degree of leadership control over member activity
A party that values principled stands on issues above all else, including winning
The social rewards (sense of pleasure, status, or companionship) that lead people to join political organizations.
An electoral system with two dominant parties that compete in state or national elections, one of the primary features of American elections.
A meeting of party members to select delegates backing one or another primary candidate.
Tea Party Movement
American populist political movement, not a political party but a faction of the Republican party, which is both conservative and libertarian, and has supported political candidates since 2009. It endorses reduced government spending, opposition to taxation, reduction of the national debt and federal budget deficit, and adherence to a strict interpretation of the United States Constitution.
The person currently holding an elective office.
political action committee (PAC)
A committee set up by a corporation, labor union, or interest group that raises and spends campaign money from voluntary donations.
Drawing the boundaries of political districts so that districts are very unequal in population
Drawing the boundaries of legislative districts in bizarre or unusual shapes to make it easy for candidates of the party in power to win elections in those districts
An issue about which the public is divided and rival candidates or political parties adopt different policy positions.
An issue about which the public is united and rival candidates or political parties adopt similar positions in hopes that each will be thought to best represent those widely shared beliefs.
An election held to choose which candidate will hold office.
An election held to choose candidates on each party's ticket who will run in the general election.
A primary election in which voting is limited to registered party members
A primary election that permits voters to choose on election day the party in which they wish to vote.
Elections held every four years by the major parties to select delegates to their presidential nominating conventions.
Spending by political action committees, corporations, or labor unions to help a party or candidate as long as it is not coordinated with a candidate's campaign, but done independently of them (not by giving money to a candidate or party).
Funds solicited by a political party from individuals, corporations, and unions that are spent on party activities as long as a specific candidate is not named, such as voter-registration campaigns and get-out-the-vote drives.
Voting for a candidate because one favors his or her ideas for addressing issues after the election.
Voting for or against the candidate or party in office because one likes or dislikes his or her past actions in office.
A political action committee that may not make contributions to candidate campaigns or parties, but may engage in unlimited political spending independently of the campaigns. Unlike traditional PACs, they can raise funds from individuals, corporations, unions, and other groups without any legal limit on donation size.
Federal Election Commission (FEC)
The government agency that administers the Presidential Public Financing System and regulates federal elections, particularly campaign financing
In the campaign finance sense, identifying the source of campaign funds
Presidential Public Financing System
Provides legitimate presidential candidates public funding to run their campaigns, if they choose to receive it.
Federal Election Campaign Act of 1974
This law created the FEC and started to regulate campaign donations and financing.
Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 (McCain-Feingold)
eliminated "soft money", raised the limit on individual donations to $2,000 per candidate per election, and limited campaign spending by corporations and PACs
Running for elected office.
Soliciting donations to provide revenue to run an election campaign.
Someone who has declared an interest to run for elected office and has obtained enough signatures run for the elected position.
A primary election where independent voters may choose which party primary to vote in, while voters registered with a party may only vote in that party's primary; Arizona has this form of primary for congressional elections.
An election campaign directed at the common people rather than the elite seeking support of a candidate as a volunteer at the local level through community outreach such as door-to-door contact, petition signing etc.
The people chosen to cast each state's votes in a presidential election. Each state can cast one electoral vote for each senator and representative it has. The District of Columbia has three electoral votes, even though it cannot elect a representative or senator; thus there are 538 Electoral College votes and 270 required to elect the President.
During the presidential election, when the winner of the popular vote in a state receives all (rather than a proportional share) of that states votes from the Electoral College.
The election system in which the winner get more than 50% of the votes (50% + 1).
The election system in which the winner gets the most votes even if he or she does not receive a majority; used in almost all American elections.
A citizen residing in the area governed, represented, or otherwise served by an elected official.
Constituents who are registered to vote.
The election that takes place in the middle of a presidential term, after two years, where all members of the House and one-third of the Senate run for election/reelection.
An organization of people sharing a common interest or goal that seeks to influence public policy.
Institutional Interest Groups
Individuals or groups representing other organizations (for example, trade associations like the Chamber of Commerce or the Milk Producer's Council).
Membership Interest Groups
interest groups made up of those who join voluntarily
The social rewards (sense of pleasure, status, or companionship) that lead people to join political organizations (for example, the Rotary Club or VFW).
Money, things, or services obtainable from interest group membership
public interest group
A political organization whose goals will principally benefit nonmembers (for example, Ralph Nader's Public Citizen or the ACLU).
Ideological Interest Groups
Political organizations that attract members by appealing to their political convictions or principles (for example, the NRA or Greenpeace).
Political Action Committees (PACs)
groups that can collect political donations and make campaign contributions to candidates for office
Federal Regulation of Lobbying Act of 1946
A law restricting lobbying efforts involving direct contacts with members of Congress
Cue (political cue)
A signal telling a legislator what values are at stake in a vote, and how that issue fits into his or her own political views or party agenda.
Incentive (political incentive)
A benefit obtained by joining a political organization.
A person who tries to influence legislation on behalf of an interest group.
The sense of satisfaction derived from serving a cause or principle from which one does not benefit personally.
A widely share demand for change in some aspect of the social or political order.
Pluralistic Political System
a description of the U.S. political system, once used by scholars, to describe that policy-making process includes competing interest groups; now widely discredited.
Declared government objectives relating to the health, morals, and well being of the citizenry.
equal time rule
An FCC rule that if a broadcaster sells time to one candidate, it must sell equal time to other candidates.
An FCC policy that obligated broadcasters or present both sides of an issue; no longer in effect.
freedom of information act
U.S. legislation guarenteeing citizens access to certain government documents
Information leaked to the media by an anonymous source to test public reaction to a possible policy or appointment.
spin (public relations)
In public relations, a form of propaganda, achieved through providing an interpretation of an event or campaign to persuade public opinion
A condition in which someone can deny knowledge of any particular fact that may exist because the he or she is deliberately kept in the dark.
The tendency of the national media to be suspicious of public officials and eager to reveal unflattering stories about them.
An advertisement attacking a candidate's character or record.
Not controlled by religion; the opposite of religious
Journalism that investigate personalities and expose scandals
Journalism that tracks political reputations and candidacies.
Journalism that influences what subjects become national political issues and for how long.
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A political party's statement of its goals and policies for the next four years. It is the best formal statement of a party's beliefs.
*"THIS"* elections are those held between presidential elections, involving all seats in the House of Representatives, one-third of those in the Senate, thirty-six governorships, and other positions.
The worst setback the polling industry suffered was in 1948, when Gallup and others incorrectly predicted the victory of this candidate over Harry Truman.