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Chapter 20-22 APUSH
Terms in this set (104)
2nd Industrial Revolution
period in American history during the late 19th century after the Civil War in which heavy industry and the production of steel, petroleum, electric power, and industrial machinery grew immensely. The United States shifted permanently in this era from an agrarian country to an advanced, industrial world power.
-Completed 1869 at Promontory, Utah
-linked eastern railroad system with California's railroad system, revolutionizing transportation in the west
-stretches across a continent from coast to coast. The Transcontinental Railroad made it so that it was easier for mail and goods to travel faster and cheaper
-took land away from Native Americans and many were killed in the early stages.
-American business men or industrialists
-used their power to develop industrial Monopolies and become extremely wealthy.
-gained huge profits by paying their employees extremely low wages.
-drove competitors out of business by selling their products cheaper than it cost to produce it.
-when they controlled the market, they hiked prices high above original price.
Credit Mobilier Company
the 1867-1868 scandal in which Union Pacific executives formed their own railroad construction company, then hired and overpaid themselves to build their own railroad
United States financier who gained control of the Erie Canal and who caused a financial panic in 1869 when he attempted to corner the gold market (1836-1892), sold fake stocks to try to put NY railroads out of business
A process of buying out competition and placing officers from one's own banking house on their boards of directors.
an economic method that had other companies assigns their stocks to the board of trust who would manage them. This made the head of the board, or the corporate leader wealthy, and at the same time killed off competitors not in the trust. This method was used/developed by Rockefeller, and helped him become extremely wealthy. It was also used in creating monopolies.
was pioneered by tycoon Andrew Carnegie. It is when you combine into one organization all phases of manufacturing from mining to marketing. This makes supplies more reliable and improved efficiency. It controlled the quality of the product at all stages of production.
inventor of the air brake for trains who developed the first alternating-current system in 1886, which allowed electric currents to cover long distances.
A deaf Edison invented the phonograph and by 1900 it was used in over 150,000 homes. His invention made going to the symphony obsolete. He also invented the light bulb. This invention changed the way of life for thousands of Americans.
-wrote the gospel of wealth
- developed the U.S. steel industry
-his is a rags-to-riches story as he made a fortune in business and sold his holdings in 1901 for $447 million. -He spent the rest of his life giving away $350 million to worthy cultural and educational causes.
-set the standard for new steel mills.
-an advocate of Social Darwinism
-believed that unrestricted competition would eliminate weak businesses.
-thought that a concentration of wealth was a natural result of capitalism, but that it should be given back to society. ECONOMIC & CULTURAL.
John d. Rockefeller
Rockefeller was an unusually skillful business organizer. He founded Standard Oil Company and the Standard Oil Trust, which dominated American oil refining. Like others of his ilk, he sought to stabilize his industry, reduce competition, and maximize profits.
The railroad owner who built a railway connecting Chicago and New York. He popularized the use of steel rails in his railroad, which made railroads safer and more economical. This man was one of the few railroad owners to be just and not considered a "Robber Barron"
established a shipping-land transit across Nicaragua after the gold rush.
Business man -refinanced railroads during depression of 1893 - built intersystem alliance by buying stock in competeing railroads - marketed US governemnt securities on large scale
Banker who buys out Carnegie Steel and renames it to U.S. Steel Corporation(Americas first billion dollar company ). Was a philanthropist in a way; he gave all the money needed for WWI and was payed back. Was one of the "Robber barons"
Invented the first telephone. A teacher of the deaf. He was significant because his invention sparked the creation of a gigantic communication network across the United States. Made women go from the kitchens to the work place as "number please women."
started the Bell Telephone company
Gospel of Wealth
Essay written by Andrew Carnegie.
-Promoted Social Darwinism
-Wealth among the few was the natural and most efficient result of capitalism
-Great wealth brought responsibility
Essay written by Andrew Carnegie.
-Promoted Social Darwinism
People in the world who were destined to become rich and help society
-allowed for the price of steel to drop dramatically and for its production to be done with relative ease. The process involved blowing cold air on red-hot iron in order to ignite the carbon and eliminate impurities.
-made possible for steel production in great quantities, for use in manufacture of locomotives, steel rails, and girders for the construction of tall buildings.
-first inexpensive industrial process for the mass production of steel and pig iron, patented in 1855
responsible for the formation of one of the first labor unions. The American Federation of Labor worked on getting people better hours and better wages. The formation of this triggered the formation of various others that would come later. pres of fed
Henry Clay Frick
-American industrialist, financier, and art patron. He founded the H. C. Frick & Company coke manufacturing company, was chairman of the Carnegie Steel Company, and played a major role in the formation of the giant U.S. Steel. Once known by his critics as "the most hated man in America," one of the "Worst American CEOs of All Time," and known for his lack of morality, anti-unionist
-was Carnegie's supplier of coke to fuel his steel mills as well as his right hand man. He was very anti-union. He was in charge of the mills when the Homestead Strike occurred. His decision to use strike breakers ignited the riot, and helped stain the image of unions.
-actions during the Homestead Strike of 1892 led to the end of the steelworkers' union and seriously crushed hopes of further unionizing steelworkers
Knights of Labor
-leader: Terence V. Powderly
-Social and cultural uplift of the American worker, while rejecting socialism and anarchism.
-demanded an 8 hour workday, and to end child and convict labor
-Local assemblies would initiate strikes to win concessions from employers
-Included women and African Americans. Excluded Bankers, doctors, lawyers, stockholders, and liquor manufacturers
-Almost 800,000 workers at peak
-Many Catholic higher ups saw knights as a secret society due to their secrecy
-involved in a number of May Day strikes, such as the Haymarket square riot, which weakened it
Prominent radical, socialist leader
-founded the American Railroad Union and led and got arrested during the 1894 Pullman Strike (1894)
-a convert to socialism
-ran for president 5 times between 1900 and 1920. In 1920, he campaigned from prison where he was being held for opposition to American involvement in World War I.
"Mother" Jones helped establish, Elizabeth Flynn, Big Bill Haywood, and Eugene Debs;
strove to unite all laborers, including unskilled workers and African Americans;
its goal was to create "One Big Union;"
embraced the rhetoric of class conflict and endorsed violent tactics;
the organization collapsed during WWI.
William D. Haywood of the Western Federation of Miners, Daniel De Leonof of the Socialist Labor Party, and Eugene V. Debs of the Socialist Party
tactics of the IWW are described as "revolutionary industrial unionism," with ties to both socialist and anarchist labor movements
union of wage workers by militant unionists
Popular novelist during the Industrial Revolution who wrote that virtue, honesty and industry would be rewarded with success, wealth and honor.
this Puritan-reared New England ex-pastor began his literary career in 1866, during which he wrote more than 100 books of juvenile fiction in which virtue, honesty, and industry were rewarded with success, wealth, and honor
the famous "rags to riches" theme.
An outspoken radical who was deported after being arrested on charges of being an anarchist, socialist, or labour agitator.he played a pivotal role in the development of anarchist political philosophy
was a labor organizer, known as Mother Jones. She fought for coal workers' rights by speaking in Appalachian mining towns, encouraging them to join unions. She also fought for child labor laws
a dressmaker in Chicago until a fire destroyed her business. She then devoted her life to the cause of workers. Supported striking railroad workers in Pittsburg, and traveled around the country organizing coal miners and campaigning for improved working conditions. Helped pave the way for reform.
Thomas Nast cartoons
National Labor Union(NLU)
leader:William H. Sylvis
- "business unionism" that emphasized union's' contribution to businesses' profits and national economic growth
-didn't do much actual protesting- died out quickly
-Composed of delegates from labor union interested in political change
-influential in passing 1864 Contract Labor Act
American Federation of Labor(AFL)
Instead of trying to abolish the wage-labor system, it sought to use strikes to gain higher wages, lower working hours, and better working conditions
organized only skilled workers into unions defined by particular trades
United Mine Workers
Eugene V.Debs -everyone allowed, no matter race or gender
Molly Maguires (strike)
-activism for Irish, specifically coal miners
used intimidation and killing to show wrongs against Irish workers
company got detectives who infiltrated system and indicted on of the leaders, 24 MM's were convicted, and 10 were killed
Great Railroad Strike of 1877(star)
who:American Railway Union
recent wage reduction, firing, and bad town democracy
began in Pullman, Illinois
but nation wide
massive boycott against trains with Pullman cars; some riots and sabotage
Federal troops and court injunctions destroyed it after two months
A 1894 strike by railroad workers upset by drastic wage cuts. The strike was led by socialist Eugene Debs but not supported by the American Federation of Labor. Eventually President Grover Cleveland intervened and federal troops forced an end to the strike. The strike highlighted both divisions within labor and the government's new willingness to use armed force to combat work stoppages
This riot was a direct result of the extreme tensions between laborers and the wealthy business owners. The McCormick Reaper Company was on strike, 4 people had just been killed, tensions were high, and anarchists showed up and began speaking at the rally attended mainly by immigrant workers in May 1886 at Haymarket Square. It was originally intended as a rally to protest the establishment of a National Wage. Someone in the crowd threw a bomb, a riot broke out, 7 policemen died, and as a result 8 innocent German immigrants were arrested and the Knights of Labor were blamed for the riot. The riot resulted in the loss of all sympathy for laborers, and a fear anarchy in the middle class, which became a huge obstacle for the AF of L and Knight's of Labor.
Chinese and Americans fight over working conditions
The sandlot incident a series of anti chinese riots in 1870's california spurred by an economic depression in the 1870s that hit th west coast particularly hard
Anthracite Coal Strike of 1902
A strike demanding a 20% pay increase, a nine-hour work day, and Union recognition. It crippled the nation in the winter of 1902 and led to the creation of the Fact Finding Committee to arbitrate the problem. When the committee ruled against the management, Roosevelt threatened to use the army to enforce the ruling if management didn't comply. The workers got a nine-hour working day and a 10% pay increase.
Applied Darwin's theory of natural selection and "survival of the fittest" to human society -- the poor are poor because they are not as fit to survive. Used as an argument against social reforms to help the poor., A social application of Charles Darwin's biological theory of evolution by natural selection, this late-nineteenth century theory encouraged the notion of human competitio and opposed intervention in the natural human order. Social Darwinists justified the increasing inequality of late-nineteeth-century industrial American society as natural.
Developed the survival-of-the-fittest theories with William Graham Sumner. He coined the phrase "survival of the fittest," not Darwin. This social thinker emphasized the rigidity of natural law, while occasionally borrowing evolutionary jargon to engage contemporary audiences. He said: "These millionaires are a product of natural selection. What do social classes owe each other? Nothing."
theory embraced by social reformer charlotte gilman
argued that darwin's theories f evolution only presented the male as the given in the process of human evolution
A philosophical doctrine developed primarily by William James that denied the existence of absolute truths and argued that ideas should be judged by their practical consequences.
The spread of mass transit allowed large numbers of people to become commuters, and a growing middle class retreated to quieter, tree-lined "streetcar suburbs" from whence they could travel into the central city for business or entertainment.
new form of housing that was developed in the early 1900's it was designed as a dumbbell and had more apartments for more families and shared restrooms. these tenements were fire hazards, waste and disease.
opened in 1892 as a immigration center. New arrivals had to pass rigorous medical and document examinations and pay entry before being allowed into the U.S.
Chinese Exclusion Act
1882, halted Chinese immigration to America; Started when people of the West Coast attributed declining wages and economic troubles to the hated Chinese workers; In order to appease them Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act
designed by frederick law olmsted [and Calvert Vaux] in 1858, new york's central park was the first example of a movement to create urban parks.
Demand for professional services leads to the forming of organizations of trained professionals. The esteem and training for positions went up
Little Italy, Chinatown, etc.
Neighborhoods in which the majority of people are of the same ethnicity. ethnic enclaves
The immigration station on the west coast where Asian immigrants, mostly Chinese gained admission to the U.S. at San Francisco Bay.
Political machines (Tweed, Plunkitt, Hall)
Corrupt organized groups that controlled political parties in the cities. A boss leads the machine and attempts to grab more votes for his party.
An amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1868, defining national citizenship and forbidding the states to restrict the basic rights of citizens or other persons.
A practice where a political party, after winning an election, gives government jobs to its voters as a reward for working toward victory, and as an incentive to keep working for the party—as opposed to a system of awarding offices on the basis of some measure of merit independent of political activity.
Sherman Anti-trust law 1838
banned any formations that would restrict trade, not distinguishing between bad and good trusts. The act was a hamper on worker unions, but it showed that the government was slowly moving away from laissez faire ideals.
The first law to limit monopolies in the United States. This wanted to create a fairer competition in the workforce and to limit any take-over's of departments of merchandise.
A derogatory term referring to appropriation of government spending for localized projects secured solely or primarily to bring money to a representative's district.
the mighty list of federal projects, grants, and contracts available to cities, businesses, colleges, and institutions available in a congressional distric
Pendleton Civil Service Act
created a system in which federal employees were chosen based upon competitive exams. This made job positions based on merit or ability and not inheritance or class. It also created the Civil Service Commission. ECONOMIC.
Interstate Commerce Commission(ICC)
compelled railroads to publish standard rates, and prohibited rebates and pools. Railroads quickly became adept at using the Act to achieve their own ends, but the Act gave the government an important means to regulate big business.
The Gilded Age
late 19th and early 20th centuries in America are often referred to as the "Gilded Age."
origin of this name is usually attributed to Mark Twain who co-authored a novel entitled The Gilded Age.
the word "gilded" carries connotations of cheap commercialization, shoddiness, and fakery. Twain's novel is about social climbers and get-rich-quick schemers who are all show and no substance, like a gold-painted trinket. "Gilded Age" also suggests a fascination with gold itself and with the wealth and power that gold symbolizes.
States could not regulate commerce extending beyond their borders
A Supreme Court decision that prohibited states from regulating the railroads because the Constitution grants Congress the power to regulate interstate commerce. As a result, reformers turned their attention to the federal government, which now held sole power to regulate the railroad industry.
Republican symbol for elections during the Gilded Age
Pointed out to voters that the REPUBLICANS (NOT the DEMOCRATS) won the Civil War for the Union. waving the bloody shirt."
reviving gory memories of the Civil War; helped elect Ulysses S. Grant as President in 1869
reduced high tariff rates only marginally, and left in place fairly strong protectionist barriers, President Chester A. Arthur appointed a commission in May 1882 to recommend how much tariff rates should be reduced, 1883
"ma, ma, where's my pa?"
An 1884 Presidential Campaign Slogan used by candidate James Blaine to refer to Glover Cleveland's allegedly out-of-wedlock child
Republican mudslinging towards Cleveland on the basis of his illegitimate child
Cleveland p. 832 (public $, vetoes...)his anti-tariff work p. 833+
Bland-Allison Act & Sherman Silver Purchase Act
1878 - Authorized coinage of a limited number of silver dollars and "silver certificate" paper money. First of several government subsidies to silver producers in depression periods. Required government to buy between $2 and $4 million worth of silver. Created a partial dual coinage system referred to as "limping bimetallism." Repealed in 1900.
Sherman Silver Purchas Act 1890 - Directed the Treasury to buy even larger amounts of silver that the Bland-Allison Act and at inflated prices. The introduction of large quantities of overvalued silver into the ecomony lead to a run on the ferderal gold reserves, leading to the Panic of 1893. Repealed in 1893.
McKinley Tariff of 1890
1890 bill calling for the highest peacetime tariff yet: 48.4 percent. It gave a bounty of two cents a pound to American sugar producers, and raised tariffs on agricultural products. The duties on manufactured goods hurt farmers financially.
What does the term "gilded age" mean?
Do you think the term "gilded age" is a valid title for this
era? Why or why not?
Explain the partisanship of the gilded age and what issues were divisive. (at national, state, and local levels).
Identify the major factions within the Republican Party at the end of the 19th century. What issues were divisive?
What efforts were made by the government to regulate businesses and why were they these controversial?
Account for the rise of the farmer protest movement in the 1880s and 1890s. What impact did the Populist movement have on the American agenda.
The Populist movement was a revolt by farmers in the South and Midwest against the Democratic and Republican Parties for ignoring their interests and difficulties. For over a decade, farmers were suffering from crop failures, falling prices, poor marketing, and lack of credit facilities.
What caused the massive increase in immigration in the later decades of the 19th century?
Who were these "new immigrants" and how did native-born Americans respond to their immigration?
Make connections about immigration patterns with what we have studied about this time period: consider westward movement, blacks out of the south, rural to urban, and now this "new immigration."
Account for the rise in urban centers during this period. What was life like for the working poor in urban centers?
Explain social phenomena of the period including (but not limited to): realism & naturalism, Social Darwinism, social gospel (and the manifestations of it), developments in higher education, and popular culture centered around urban areas (sports, etc.).
Explain important changes for women in the 2nd half of the 19th century.
colleges and doors open to all sexes
What technological innovations of the late 19th century transformed communication, agriculture, and business operations?
Explain the concepts of "scientific management" and mass production. Who were the leading pioneers of these new approaches to industry?
How did the railroad transform America economically and ecologically? Describe how the RR created a truly national market. Explain the shady dealings of RR companies.
What role did government play in the rise of big business?
What factors caused the growth of the economy in the late 19th century?
What developments produced the 2nd Industrial Revolution in the US?
Account for the limited growth and limited success of labor unions during this period. What did the Knights of Labor and the American Federation of Labor do differently?
The two unions that you mention went about trying to solve this problem very differently. The Knights of Labor were a relatively radical union. They felt that it was necessary to change the entire American economic system in order to gain better lives for workers. They wanted to create a more socialist system in which the workers owned and operated the factories and other places of business where they worked. The Knights wanted to include all workers (including blacks, women, immigrants, and unskilled workers) in their union. This was all very different from what the AFL wanted. The AFL was much more conservative. It did not want to change the American economic system. Instead, it just wanted that system to treat its members better. It did not seek radical social change and asked only for better working conditions and wages. It did not accept blacks or women and it tried to organize only the top stratum of workers—those who had the greatest skills and could not be easily replaced by their bosses.
Trace the roots, events, and consequences of the major labor confrontations of the period: Molly Maguires, RR strike of 1877, sand lot incident, Haymarket Affair, Homestead Strike, Pullman Strike, etc.
What role did Socialism play in the labor movement?
Pacific Railway Act of 1862
Called for the building of the Transcontinental Railroad to stretch across America connecting California and the rest of America
862, provides federal subsidies in land and loans for the construction of a transcontinental railroad by companies
Who were the sodbusters? What was "romantic" about their life?
the nickname given to farmers on the Great Plains because they used plows to break up the thick grasssod) and reach the soil below
What were bonanza farms?
large farms that came to dominate agricultural life in much of the West in the late 1800s; instead of plots farmed by yeoman farmers, large amounts of machinery were used, and workers were hired laborers, often performing only specific tasks(similar to work in a factory).
What role did women play in growth of the west?
What two companies built the transcontinental railroad? What problems did they face?
Union Pacific Railroad Companies
What role did the Federal government play in the building of this railroad?
federal government began granting land to certain railroads in exchange for reduced carriage charges for government use.
What happened at Promentory Point Utah in 1869?
the transcontintal railroad was completed
How did the railroad impact westward expansion? (Be sure you go far beyond the obvious)
Explain the factors that contributed to the end of the open range.
The introduction of barbed wire about 1870,Drop in beef prices
What were range wars?
as settlement of the plains increased, new forms of competition emerged. Sheep breeders from Cali and Oregon brought their flocks onto the range to compete for grass. Farmers ("nesters") from the East threw fences around their claims, blocking trails and breaking up the open range.
Who were the Exodusters?
Name given to African Americans who fled the Southern United States for Kansas in 1879 and 1880 because of racial oppression and rumors of the reinstitution of slavery.
Who were the Buffalo soldiers?
African-American soldiers that formed one-fifth of the frontier soldiers after the Civil War, nicknamed for the resemblance between their hair and the buffaloes'.
Be sure to be able to name the major conflicts between Native Americans and the US army and key players.
How did the demise of the buffalo impact life for Native Americans on the Great Plains? What policies did whites use connected to the buffalo?
Who was Helen Hunt Jackson? What was important about her book?
an author who wrote A Century of Dishonor which chronicled the government's actions against the Indians. She also wrote Romona, which was a love story about Indians. Her writing helped inspire sympathy towards the Indians.
What were the goals of the Dawes Act of 1887? How did the Dawes Act actually help whites more than Native Americans in some instances?
attempt to "americanize" the indians giving each tribe 160 acres; after 25 years this property would become theirs (if they were good little whites) and they would become an american citizen
Who were the cowboys? What was life like for them? How long were they really around? How did technology impact the life of a cowboy?The West late 19th century: p. 721-41; 746-51 (RR)
Political belief in promoting social and economic equality through the ownership and control of the major means of production by the whole community rather than by individuals or corporations.
a policy or attitude of letting things take their own course, without interfering. do not want the government to interfere in business matters. allowing industry to be free of state intervention, especially restrictions in the form of tariffs and government monopolies.
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