as the transformation of a culture over time. There are several ways that social change can occur: 1.) Through a major physical event (hurricanes, earthquakes, or volcanic eruptions). 2.) Demographic factors can also lead to social change (for example, the aging of baby boomers). 3.) Discoveries and innovations (fire or the wheel). 4.) Through collective action (the civil rights movement).
refers to behavior that emerges from the formation of a group or crowd of people who together take action toward a shared goal.
suggests that individuals who join a crowd or mob become "infected" by a mob mentality and lose the ability to reason.
Emergent norm theory
assumes individual members of a crowd make their own decisions about behavior and that norms are created through others' acceptance or rejection of these behaviors.
is continuous disorderly behavior by a group of people that disturbs the peace and is directed toward other people and/or property.
occurs when large groups of people engage in similar behaviors without necessarily being in the same place.
A social dilemma
is caused when behavior that is rational for the individual can, when practiced by many people, lead to collective disaster.
Tragedy of the commons
a situation in which many individuals' overexploitation of a public resource depletes or degrades that resource
Public goods dilemma
a situation in which individuals must incur a cost to contribute to a collective resource, though they might not personally benefit from that resource
refers to any social group with the leadership, organization, and an ideological commitment to promote or resist social change.
any activity intended to bring about social change) are constantly emerging.
Regressive social movement
a term describing resistance to particular social changes, efforts to maintain the status quo, or attempts to re-establish an earlier form of social order
Progressive social movement
a term describing efforts to promote forward-thinking social change
the idea that technology plays a defining role in shaping society)
refers to the time between changes in material culture or technology and the resulting changes in the broader culture's relevant norms, values, meanings, and laws.
refers to the spread of material and nonmaterial culture to new cultural groups regardless of the movement of people.
refers to cultural influence caused by adopting another culture's products rather than by an imposing military force.
refers to the social conditions and attitudes characteristic of postindustrialized societies, including a focus on the production and management of information, and skepticism of science and technology.
is the process by which societies lose their uniqueness and become increasingly similar.
refers to the social conditions and attitudes characteristic of industrialized societies, including the decline of tradition, an increase in individualism, and a belief in progress, technology, and science.
are interests or practices followed enthusiastically for a relatively short period of time.
refers to the widespread custom or style of behavior and appearance at a particular time or in a particular place.