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2nd Great Awakening

"spiritual reform from within"; religious revivalism; social reforms and redefining the ideal of equality; Charles G. Finney


religious movement beginning with the visions of Joseph Smith in upstate New York during the 1820s; The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

Joseph Smith

American religious leader and the founder of the Latter Day Saint movement, which gave rise to Mormonism

Brigham Young

American leader in the Latter Day Saint movement and a settler of the Western United States. He was the President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints; in 1877, he founded Salt Lake City, and he served as the first governor of the Utah Territory, United States


Washington Irving; Transcendentalists; Emerson; Thoreau; Herman Melville; Nathaniel Hawthorne; nature


rejected secular authority and authority of organized churches and the scriptures , of laws, or of conventions; thought man was divine; slavery is wicked; soul corrupted by superstition; Emerson; Thoreau

Ralph Waldo Emerson

Transcendentalist; Self-Reliance; many famous essays

Henry David Thoreau

Transcendentalist; wrote Walden; individualism

Brook Farm

Brook Farm Institute of Agriculture and Education; utopian experiment in communal living in the United States in the 1840s; George Ripley; societal model based on the socialist concepts of Charles Fourier and began publishing The Harbinger as an unofficial journal promoting Fourierism


United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing; religious sect originally thought to be a development of the Religious Society of Friends; Ann Lee; equality of the sexes

Oneida Community

religious commune founded by John Humphrey Noyes in 1848 in Oneida, New York; believed that Jesus had already returned in the year 70, making it possible for them to bring about Jesus's millennial kingdom themselves, and be free of sin and perfect in this world, not just Heaven; communalism

Thomas Cole

English-born American artist; regarded as the founder of the Hudson River School, an American art movement that flourished in the mid-19th century; themes of romanticism and naturalism

Frederick Church

American landscape painter born in Hartford, Connecticut. He was a central figure in the Hudson River School of American landscape painters

Hudson River School

mid-19th century American art movement embodied by a group of landscape painters whose aesthetic vision was influenced by romanticism

Washington Irving

American author, essayist, biographer and historian of the early 19th century. He is best known for his short stories "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" and "Rip Van Winkle"

James Fennimore Cooper

prolific and popular American writer of the early 19th century; Romantic novel The Last of the Mohicans

Nathaniel Hawthorne

transcendentalist; wrote "The Scarlet Letter"; worked at a Custom House and joined Brook Farm; considered part of the Romantic movement and, more specifically, dark romanticism. His themes often center on the inherent evil and sin of humanity, and his works often have moral messages and deep psychological complexity


anti-drinking movement

Dorothea Dix

American activist on behalf of the indigent insane who, through a vigorous program of lobbying state legislatures and the United States Congress, created the first generation of American mental asylums. During the Civil War, she served as Superintendent of Army Nurses

Horace Mann

American education reformer; Massachusetts House of Representatives from 1827 to 1833; "Father of the Common School Movement"

McGuffey Readers

series of graded primers that were widely used as textbooks in American schools from the mid-19th century to the mid-20th century

Grimke Sisters

Sarah and Angelina; 19th-century American Quakers, educators and writers who were early advocates of abolitionism and women's rights; act publicly in social reform movements; abolitionists

Lucretia Mott

American Quaker, abolitionist, women's rights activist, and a social reformer

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

American social activist, abolitionist, and leading figure of the early woman's movement; Seneca Falls Convention

Seneca Falls Convention

early and influential women's rights convention held in Seneca Falls, New York, July 19-20, 1848; Lucretia Mott; Elizabeth Cady Stanton; lecture on law, a humorous presentation, and multiple discussions about the role of women in society; Declaration of Sentiments

Susan B. Anthony

prominent American civil rights leader who played a pivotal role in the 19th century women's rights movement to introduce women's suffrage into the United States;co-founder of the first Women's Temperance Movement with Elizabeth Cady Stanton as President; women's rights journal The Revolution

William Lloyd Garrison

prominent American abolitionist, journalist, and social reformer; editor of the abolitionist newspaper The Liberator; Anti-slavery and for women's rights

The Liberator

abolitionist newspaper edited by William Lloyd Garrison

Frederick Douglass

runaway Black slave who wrote autobiography about his slave life; abolitionist; firm believer in the equality of all people

Harriet Tubman

woman abolitionist who helped blacks escape to freedom on the Underground Railroad; women's suffragist

Sojourner Truth

self-given name; born Isabella Baumfree; African-American abolitionist and women's rights activist; "Ain't I a Woman?"

David Walker

outspoken African American activist who demanded the immediate end of slavery. In 1829, while living in Boston, Massachusetts, he published Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World, a call for black unity and self-help in the fight against oppression and injustice; largely ignored

Amelia Bloomer

American women's rights and temperance advocate; early and strong advocacy; went to Seneca Falls Convention; temperance movement

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