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what are 3 reasons atrial dysrhythmias may occur?

altered automaticity, triggered activity, reentry

what kind of disorders are altered automaticity and triggered activity?

disorders in impulse formation

what kind of disorder is reentry?

disorder in impulse conduction

altered automaticity can occur in what kind of cells?

normal pacemaker cells and myocardial working cells that do not normally function as pacemaker sites. these cells depolarize and initiate before a normal impulse

when does triggered activity happen and what does it require?

during repolarization when cells are normally quiet and requires a stimulant to initiate depolarization

what is reentry?

a condition in which an impulse returns to stimulate tissue that was previously depolarized?

what does reentry require?

a potential conduction circuit or circular conduction pathway, a block within part of the circuit, delayed conduction with the remainder of the curcuit

what does reentry result in?

a single premature beat or repetitive electrical impulses resulting in short periods of rapid rhythms

an excessively rapid heart rate may compromise...

cardiac output

premature beats may be produced by the...

atria, av junction, ventricles

two premature beats in a row are called

pairs or couples

three or more premature beats in a row

run or burst


every other beat is a premature beat


every third beas is a premature beat


ectopic beat occurring every fourth complex

characteristics of the p wave in a PAC

biphasic, flattened, notched, pointed, lost in the proeceding t wave

nonconpensatory pause

if the normal beat following the premature complex occurs before it was expected

conpensatory pause

if the normal beat followin the premature conplex occurs when expected

PACs associated with a wide QRS complex are called...

aberrantly conducted PACs

what does a wide QRS complex indicate?

conduction through ventricles was abnormal

when a PAC occurs very early and close to the preceding t wave (only a p wave may be seen with no QRS after it appearing as a pause) it is called...

nonconducted or blocked PAC

what varies in a wondering pacemaker?

the differences in p wave configuration reflect gradual shifting of the dominant pacemaker b/t the SA node, the atria and the AV junction. at least 3 different p wave configurations in the same lead are required for diagnosis

what is it called when wondering atrial pacemaker is associated with a vent rate <100?

multifocal atrial tachycardia

what are 7 vagal maneuvers?

coughing, squatting, holding your breath, carotid sinus massage, cold stimulus to the face, valsalva maneuver, gagging

what are the characteristics of adenosine?

can interrupt reentry pathways that involve the AV node, rapid onset of action, short half-life, slows hr

what are supraventricular arrhythmias?

rhythms that begin above the vifurcation of the bundle of His. this includes the SA node, atrial tissue and AV juction

3 or more PACs in a row at a rate of more than 100 bpm

atrial tachycardia

atrial tachycardia that starts or ends suddenly

paroxysmal atrial tachycardia (PAT)

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