Terms in this set (109)
Colorado River provides water for ______ million people in 7 states.
____ dams and reservoirs in Colorado River.
Located in a desert area within the rain shadow of the
3 cities colorado river goes to
Las Vegas, Los Angeles, San Diego
3 most serious environmental issues
1.) shortage of water
2.) biodiversity loss
3.) climate change
Water is a....
Global health issue
economic issue issue for women and children
national and global
______ children below 5 die from unsafe water diseases a day.
Vital for reducing __ and and producing _____.
Typically these people have to fetch water in homes that don't have it.
Girls and women
_____ of world doesn't have water in their homes.
nations fight over
Only ____% of water is available for us to drink
We alter the hydrologic cycle by
Polluting it or taking too much water from a certain area
People divided into.......
Water in a place after it seeps through spaces in soil, gravel and rock. (Stopped by a layer of rock)
Zone of saturation
Below earths surface and completely filled with water (groundwater zone) (Spaces in soil are filled with water)
Top of the groundwater zone, rises in falls in dry seasons
Underground caverns and layers of sand, gravel, or rock where groundwater flows
There is ____ times more water underground than there is in rivers and lakes.
Aquifers are replenished by precipitation that percolates downward called
Recharged from the side
Little or no recharge deep underground
Freshwater from precipitation and melted snow on earth's land surface
Precipitation that doesn't infiltrate the ground or return to the atmosphere by evaporation
The land which surface water drains into a particular River, lake, wetland, or other body of water. (Drainage basin)
_____ of annual surface runoff into rivers/streams is lost in seasonal floods.
The remaining 1/3 of surface runoff is called
Reliable runoff (freshwater source)
World-wide averages for use of reliable runoff:
Industrial use: __%
5 problems with use of Colorado River
1.) Colorado River basin includes some of the driest land in US/Mexico.
2.)Only modest flow of water
3.) legal pacts in 1922 and 1944 allowed more water for human use than the river has.
4.) since 1960, rivers barely flowed all the way to gulf of California
5.) received enormous amounts of pollutants
Competitor for then could cause conflict
Factors that cause water scarcity
Wasteful water use
Too many people using a water supply quicker than it can be replenished
____ of every ___ people lack access to clean water
1 of every 6
3 results of lack of clean water
1.) Increased sickness and death from drinking water
2.) millions of environmental refugees engaged in desperate search for water.
3.) intense conflicts between/within countries.
___% of earth's land area experiences severe drought
Ways to increase freshwater supplies
•reduce waste of water
•build dams/reservoirs to run off
•converging salt water
Aquifers provide water for ____ of worlds people.
Advantages of withdrawing ground water
•useful for drinking and irrigation
•exists almost everywhere
•renewable if not over pumped or contaminated
•cheaper to extract
Disadvantages of withdrawing groundwater
•aquifer depletion from over pumping
•sinking of land from over pumping
•pollution if aquifers that lasts for decades-centuries
•deeper wells are not renewable
_______ are used by small farmers in India and China.
Tube wells by small farmers accelerate
Saudi Arabia gets 70% of its water from...
Ogallala Aquifer supplies 1/3 of groundwater in
Harmful effects of over pumping aquifers
•limits future food production
•increases gap between rich and poor because poor farmers can't afford equipment to reach lesser amounts of water.
•taking aquifer water makes sand/rocks in aquifer to collapse and can cause sinkholes or land subsidences
Three largest grain producers
India, China, USA
Groundwater overdrafts near coastal areas can cause....
Salt water to be pulled into aquifers
A prolonged period in which precipitation is at least 70% lower than average and evaporation is higher
Places humans use water
How much water we used is called our
Average American uses ___ liters per day
water not directly consumed but used to produce other things
1/3 of freshwater in US comes from
Water tables are falling in many parts of the world, primarily from _________.
Groundwater depletion prevention
Waste less water
Subsidize water conservation
Limit number of wells
Do not grow water-intensive crops in dry areas
Groundwater depletion control
Raise price of water to discourage waste
Tax water pumped from wells near surface waters
Set and enforce minimum stream flow levels
Divert surface water in wet years to recharge aquifers
Deep aquifers could be next big source of water BUT...
Little is known about the geological and ecological impacts of pumping deep aquifers
Some flow beneath more than one country
Costs of tapping are unknown and could be high
structure built across a river to control the rivers flow
artificial lake, dammed water usually creates it
goals of dam and reservoir system
-release it as needed to control floods
-supply water for irrigation
Increase the reliable runoff available
Grow crops in arid regions
Displaces people because of flooded lands
losses of water through evaporation
Impaired ecological services of rivers
Loss of plant and animal species
Fill up with sediment
Can cause other streams and lakes to dry up
disrupts migration of fish
_ of _ freshwater fish and plant species are extinct/endangered because of dams.
1 of 5
Much water used for agriculture that is inefficient with water use: (name 3 crops)
cotton, alfalfa, rice
amount of water leaving Colorado River is
California Transfers Water from Water-Rich Areas to Water-Poor Areas by
Tunnels, Aqueducts, Underground pipes
North is worried about water usage and south wants to use more water.
California Water Project
Aral Sea Volume Loss caused by:
water diversion project
Long term consequences of Aral Sea loss:
Wetland destruction and wildlife
Fish extinctions and fishing declines
Aral Sea Restoration efforts
-Cooperation of neighboring countries
-More efficient irrigation
-Dike built to raise lake level
Removing dissolved salts from ocean water or from slightly salty water
2 methods of desalination:
evaporate water, leaving salts behind and it condenses as freshwater
reverse osmosis process
use high pressure to remove salts
Desalination plants don't produce a lot of
most desalination plants are in
3 problems with use of desalination
1.) High cost and energy footprint
2.) pumpin sea water through pipes and using chemicals kills marine organisms and kills algal growth.
3.) produces salty waste water
Desalination is improved on using solar and wind energy on ___________.
_______________ are sometimes used for power.
build desalination plants near
____ to _____ of water is wasted
One-half to two-thirds
________ mask the true cost of water
_______ of water in US is wasted.
is biggest user of water.
Major cause of water waste
waters low cost to users
second major cause of water waste
lack of government subsidies for improving efficiency of of water use.
Life line rate
gives each house hold a set amount of free/low priced water.
when users exceed lifeline rate they pay higher prices for water use.
Flood irrigation is
____% of irrigation water doesn't reach targeted crops
water pumped from underground and sprayed through sprinklers (80% of water reaches crops)
Low-energy precision application sprinklers
90-95% of water where it needs to go
above/below ground pipes/tubes deliver water to individual plant roots. (90-95%)
water comes from an aqueduct from river
reducing irrigation water waste
-line canals bringing water to irrigation ditches
-irrigate at night to reduce evaporation
-monitor soil moisture to add water only when needed
-grow several crops on each plot of land (polyculture)
-encourage organic flying
-avoid growing water thirsty crops in dry areas
-irrigate treated waste water
-import water intensive crops and meat
Less developed methods of irrigation sustainability
Human-powered treadle pumps (cheap, bring water up to surface)
Harvest and store rainwater
Create a polyculture canopy over crops: reduces evaporation
reducing water waste at home, businesses, and homes
Recycle water in industry
Fix leaks in the plumbing systems
Use water-thrifty landscaping: xeriscaping
Use gray water
Pay-as-you-go water use
redesign manufacturing processes to use less water
plants that require little water for yards
fix water leaks
use water meters
flushing toilets accounts for ____ of home water use
ways to use earths water sources more sustainably
-Waste less water and subsidize water conservation
-Do not deplete aquifers
- Preserve water quality
-Protect forests, wetlands, mountain glaciers, watersheds, and other natural systems that
store and release water
-Get agreements among regions and countries sharing surface water resources
-Raise water prices
- Slow population growth
gray water could be.....
stored and reused
Boulder Colorado dropped water use __% when using water meters.
YOU can reduce water use by
-use water saving toilets, showers, and faucets
-showers no baths!
-repair water leaks
-turn off sink faucets while shaving, teeth etc
-wash only full loads of clothes
-use only recycled water for watering lawns and houseplants
-wash cars with bucket of water, no hose
-find car wash that recycles water
-replace lawn with native plants that need little watering
-dont water lawns in middle of day
-use drip irrigation
water in a stream overflows and spills into an area.
Benefits of flood plains:
-refills wetlands and groundwater
floods kill _____ of humans a year
activities that increase flood damage
Levees can break or be overtopped
Paving and development increase runoff
Removal of water-absorbing vegetation
Draining wetlands and building on them
Rising sea levels from global warming means more coastal flooding
This city is highly populated on coastal flood plain, but their floods have gotten worse and killed millions of people and destroyed mangrove forests.
Bangladesh is preparing for new floods by
tolerant flood crops
ponds to collect water
embankments for high tide
To improve flood control....
rely on natures systems
-Natural vegetation in watersheds
rely less on
Flood damage prevention
-preserve forests in watersheds
-restore wetlands in flood plains
-tax development on flood plains
-use flood plains for recharging natural systems
Flood damage control
-build levees/floodwalls along streams