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79 terms

Term Quiz 2

Dr. Tranel
STUDY
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Hem/o, Hemat/o
Blood
Hematology
The study of blood and blood-forming tissues, and the disorders associated with them
Dys-
Difficult, painful, bad
Dysphagia
Condition in which swallowing is difficult or painful
Dysplasia
Condition of abnormal tissue development
Som/a, somat/o, -some
Body
Somatic
relating to the trunk, the wall of the body cavity, or to the body in general
Lysosome
Membrane-bound cytoplasmic organelle which contains hydrolytic enzymes
Reticul/o
Network
Reticulocyte
An immature red blood cell with a network of precipitated basophilic material in the cytoplasm
Reticulum
A network of tubules or blood vessels
Poly-
Many
-cle, -ule, -ole, -cule
Diminutive, small in size
Corpuscle
A small rounded body, esp a blood cell
Venule
A tiny vein that drains blood from capillaries
Arteriole
A tiny artery that takes blood into capillaries
-ase
Denotes an enzyme
Cholinesterase
A family of enzymes capable of catalyzing the hydrolysis of acylcholines
Lipase
An enzyme capable of catalyzing the hydrolysis of lipids
Ton/o
Tone, tension
Atony
Relaxation, flaccidity, or lack of tone or tension
Phag/o, -phagy, -phagia, -phage
Eating, devouring
Phagocytosis
The process of ingestion and digestion of solid substances by cells
Hyperphagia
Overeating, in a single setting
-lytic
Pertaining to that which causes lysis or to the process of lysis
Hemolytic
Relating to that which is destructive to red blood cells
Thrombolytic
Describing an agent that breaks up blood clots
-lysis
Process of breaking down, decomposing, or loosening
Hemolysis
Destruction of red blood cells with liberation of hemoglobin into the surrounding medium
-trophy
Nourishment, development, or growth
Atrophy
Wasting away of a normally developed organ or tissue due to degeneration of cells caused by undernourishment, lack of use, or aging
-plasia
Process of cellular multiplication, formation
Hyperplasia
the increased production and growth of normal cells in a tissue or organ, resulting in an abnormal increase in size of the tissue or organ
-plasty
Process of shaping, or the surgical formation of a structure or part
Leuk/o, leuc/o
White
Leukocyte
a white blood cell
Leukoderma
An absense, either partial or total, of pigment in the skin
Erythr/o
Red
Erythrocyte
A red blood cell
-emia, cemia
Blood
Anemia
Any condition in which the red cell count, hemoglobin level, and/or hematocrit are less than normal
Corpus, Corpor/o
Body
Extracorporeal
Outside the body
Corpus
The principle part of any organ; any mass or body
Corpuscle
Any small rounded body; an encapsulated sensory nerve ending
Hydr/o
Water
Hydrocephalus
Condition marked by excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the ventricles of the brain; sometimes the accumulated fluid leads to increased intracranial pressure
Glyc/o
Sweet, sugars in general
Glycolipid
A lipid containing a sugar molecule found in the myelin sheath of nerves
Glycolysis
The energy-yielding conversion of glucose to 2 pyruvic acid molecules in cells
Gluc/o
Glucose
Glucogenic
Giving rise to or producing glucose
Glucometer
A device used to measure levels of glucose in the blood, usually sampled by sticking the finger
a-, an-
Without, lack, no
Acardia
Congenital absense of the heart
Apnea
Temporary cessation of breathing
Anosmia
A loss of the sense of smell
Anoxemia
Insufficient oxygenation of the arterial blood
Hypo-
Below normal, under, deficient, beneath
Hypotonic
Describes a solution having a lower osmotic pressure than another solution; State of muscle having less tension than normal
Hypoxia
An oxygen deficiency, short of anoxia; decrease below normal levels of oxygen in inspired air
Hyper-
Above normal, beyond, excessive
Hypertrophy
Increase in the size of a tissue or organ due to growth rather than tumor formation; increase in size results from an increase in cellular components, NOT from an increase in cell number
Lip/o
Fat or lipid
Hyperlipemia
The presence of an abnormally high concentration of fats in the blood
Iso-
Equal
Isotonic
Describes a solution having the same osmotic pressure as another solution; having equal tension; type of muscular contraction in which shortening occurs while tension remains unchanged
Chrom/o, chromat/o
Color
Chromosome
Thread-like structures in the nucleus that contain genes; forms a darkly-staining body during cell division
Hypochromia
Condition in which the % of hemoglobin in the red blood cells is below the normal range
Plasm/o, plasm-, -plasm
The living substance of a cell; blood plasma
Cytoplasm
The substance of a cell, exclusive of the nucleus
Plasmolysis
Shrinking of cytoplasm in a living cell caused by loss of water by osmosis
Oxy-, ox/i
Sharp, acid, acute, or oxygen
Anoxia
Absence of oxygen from inspired gases, arterial blood, or tissues; often used incorrectly to indicate hypoxia
Oxidation
Process of combining oxygen with a substance; Loss of electrons in an atom, accompanied by increase in positive valence
Mono-
Single, one, alone
Monocyte
A type of white blood cell that is relatively large and contains a single oval-shaped nucleus; also called mononuclear leukocyte
Monoclonal
Arising from a single cell