the birthplaces of the agricultural revolution; the places where agriculture began
the use of genetically altered crops in agriculture and DNA manipulation in livestock in order to increase production
began in the late 15th and 16th century, when products were carried both ways across the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans
the production of food surpluses, with most crops destined for sale to people outside the farmer's family
The process by which fertile land becomes desert, typically as a result of drought, deforestation, or inappropriate agriculture
fencing or hedging large blocks of land (including "common" areas previously shared by all) for experiments with new techniques of farming
involved 2 important practices: the use of new higher yield seeds and the expanded use of fertilizers
hunters and gatherers
the first humans who captured and killed animals and learned which plants and fruits were edible and nutritious
current stage of commercial agriculture resulting from the shift of the farm as the center of production to a position as just one step in a multiphase industrial process that begins on the farms and ends of the consumer's table
Intensive farming or intensive agriculture is an agricultural production system characterized by the high inputs of capital, labour, or heavy usage of technologies such as pesticides and chemical fertilizers relative to land area.
intensive subsistence agriculture
involves the cultivation of small land plots through use of great amounts of labor, and yields per unit and area and populations densities are both high
other occupations than farming developed, since fewer people where needed to produce food.
labor intensive agriculture
employs large numbers of people and requires relatively little capital to produce food
the general but logical attempt to explain how an economic activity is related to the land space where goods are produced
exists not only in the lands that border the Mediterranean Sea, but also in California, central Chile, the southwestern part of South Africa, and southwestern Australia.
has private companies under charter from the governments carrying out the trade. main goal was to benefit the mother country by trading goods to accumulate precious metals, and thus enriching the country
mixed crop and livestock farming
when farmers grow crops and raise livestock on the same land spread, with most of the crops fed to animals rather than to people
the first agricultural revolution--the transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture and settlement.
nucleated settlement pattern
when villages are located quite close together with relatively small surrounding fields
this alternative to sedentary agriculture is characterized by following the herds, just as the earlier hunters and gatherers did.
a phase of society predominated by a manufacturing-based economy and moves on to a structure of society based on the provision of information, innovation, finance, and services.
primary sector (agriculture)
is the part of the economy that draws raw materials from the natural environment. This sector - agriculture, raising animals, fishing, forestry, and mining - is the largest in low-income, pre-industrial nations.
when all land passes to the eldest son, resulting in land parcels that are large and tended individually
is often seen as a subset of the tertiary sector. It includes service jobs concerned with research and development, management and administration, and processing and disseminating information
rectangular survey system
encouraged settlers to disperse evenly across interior farmlands. section lines were drawn in grids, often without reference to the terrain
Second Agriculture Revolution
began in Western Europe in the 1600s, which intensified agriculture by promoting higher yields per acre and per farmer
secondary sector (industry)
is the part of the economy that transforms raw materials into manufactured goods. This sector grows quickly as societies industrialize, and includes such operations as refining petroleum into gasoline and turning metals into tools and automobiles.
shifting cultivation (swidden agriculture)
"slash and burn" this farming method exists primarily in rain forest zones for Central and South America, West Africa, eastern and central Asia, and much of southern China and Southeast Asia
most prevalent in LDCs, is the production of only enough food to feed the farmer's family, with no surpluses to sell
tertiary sector (services)
is the part of the economy that involves services rather than goods. includes construction, trade, finance, real estate, private services, government, and transportation
Third Agricultural Revolution
began in the mid-20th century and is still going on today in the form of industrial agriculture, modern farming that refers to the industrialized production of livestock, poultry, fish, and crops
commercial gradening and fruit farming is often referred to this because "truck" meant "bartering" in the English language.
when new plants are produced by direct cloning form existing plants, such as cutting stems and dividing roots.
von Thunen's model
a model for rural land use in the early 19th century. assumed a flat terrain with uniform soils and no significan barriers to transportation to market
planted on dry land in a nursery and the moved as seedlings to a flooded field to promote growth