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80 terms

Chapter 26

True/False and multiple choice with only a few options.
STUDY
PLAY
A diet high in cellulose helps to reduce the body's cholesterol level.
False
Water-soluble vitamins remain dissolved in the blood plasma longer, and are excreted from the body more slowly, than fat-soluble vitamins.
False
On a day when the temperature is over 100 degrees F, evaporation is the only means by which the body can lose heat.
True
HDLs contain more protein and fewer lipids than LDLs.
True
Ideally, a person's blood HDL level should be kept as low as possible.
False, dummy.
The essential amino acids can be synthesized from other amino acids when they are lacking in the diet.
False
No significant amount of the body's energy requirement comes from vitamins.
True
Plant foods contain more salt than meats do.
False (really? Did you REALLY think it was true?)
It is undesirable to consume large doses of fat-soluble vitamins.
True
Lactic acid contains more free energy than the pyruvic acid from which it is made.
True
Elderly people easily become chilled because they have more brown fat.
False
The primary reason we do not feel hungry for a few hours after eating a meal is the stretching of the stomach.
False
More energy enters the mitochondrial membrane reactions by way of NADH than by way of FADH2-.
True
Even though fiber is important to health, it is not considered a nutrient.
True
Even though water is important in health, it is not considered a nutrient.
False
The recommended daily allowance is higher for ___ than any of these other nutrients.

proteins
carbohydrates
vitamins
carbohydrates
Next to water, the most abundant substance in cow's milk is

calcium
vitamin D
maltose
maltose
In a state of nitrogen balance

-nitrogen intake and output are equal

OR

-rates of muscle growth/atrophy are =
nitrogen intake and output are equal
Each of the following lists some of the intermediates of glycolysis and aerobic respiration. Which lists them in correct metabolic order?

-G6P, PGAL, pyruvic acid, acetyl-CoA, citric acid

OR

-G6P, PGAL, acetyl-CoA, citric acid, pyruvic acid
G6P, PGAL, pyruvic acid, acetyl-CoA, citric acid
The most significant product of ornithine cycle is

ornithie
ammonia
urea
urea
A gram of fat has about __ the calories of gram of starch.

twice

or

five times.
twice
Eicosanoids and bile salts are made from which of the following nutrients?

Lipids
Proteins
Carbohydrates
lipids
Glucostats are cells located in

-the gastric mucosa
-the hypothalamus
-the pancreatic islets
hypothalamus
Which of the following is not a macronutrient?

fat
starch
protein
calcium
calcium
The human body contains carbohydrates in all of the following forms and places except

-glucose in the bloodstream
-glycogen in the liver
-cellulose in the cell walls
cellulose in the cell walls
When fats are incompletely oxidized, they yield ___, which may cause acidosis.

ketones
amino acids
acetyl groups
ketones
During periods of fasting, fat is said to have protein-sparing effect because the body

-oxidizes its spare protein before it depletes its fat reserves

-does not oxidize its proteins unless it has consumed its fat reserves
does not oxidize its proteins unless it has consumed its fat reserves
Which of the following is not a dietary source of cholesterol?

eggs
liver
whole milk
shrimp
corn oil
corn oil
When the triglycerides have been removed from a chylomicron, the empty chylomicron remnant-

-returns to the liver to be refilled with lipids

-removed from the blood and degraded by the liver
removed from the blood and degraded by the liver
The highest percentage of cholesterol is found in

VLDs
LDLs
HDLs
LDLs
Proteins are important for all of the following physiological roles except-

structural strength
thermal insulation
oxygen/membrane transport
thermal insulation
All of the following people could be expected to exhibit positive nitrogen balance except-

a growing child
a person dying in a famine
a pregnant women
a fetus
a person dying in a famine
Which of the following would provide the lowest quality of minerals for a given weight of food?

peas and beans
eggs and milk
broccoli and carrots
rice and white flour
rice and white flour
Our need for all of the following except __ is met partly by our own intestinal bacteria.

biotin
manganese
vitamin K
manganese
All of the following vitamins except __ are fat-soluble.

A
K
C
D
E
C
An excess of this vitamin can cause anorexia, hair loss, and birth defects.

riboflavin (B2)
retinol (A)
phylloquinone (K)
retinol (A)
The coenzymes of aerobic respiration are synthesized from

minerals
B vitamins
amino acids
B vitamins
Of all the NADH contributing energy to ATP synthesis, most is produced by-

anaerobic fermentation
the citric acid cycle
the mitochondrial proton pumps
the citric acid cycle
Cytochromes and iron-sulfur centers are found in-

-the mitochondrial matrix
-the space between the 2 mitochondrial membranes
-the inner mitochondrial membrane
the inner mitochondrial membrane
Hydrogen ions diffuse from the intermembrane space of a mitochondrion into the mitochondrial matrix by way of-

iron-sulfur centers
proton pumps
ATP synthase
ATP synthase
Approximately __ of the energy in a glucose molecule winds up in ATP molecules at the end of aerobic respiration.

20%
40%
80%
40%
The conversion of amino acids to glucose is called-

gluconcogenesis
glycogenesis
glyconeogenesis
gluconcogenesis
The liver performs all of the following functions except-

secretion of digestive enzymes
glycogenesis
synthesis of plasma proteins
secretion of digestive enzymes
The liver performs all of the following functions except-

disposal of chylomicron remnants
absorption of digested nutrients
synthesis of clotting factors
absorption of digested nutrients
The synthesis and storage of triglycerides is called-

lipogenesis
lypolysis
the fat-sparing effect
lipogenesis
Which of the following is a ketone body?

PGAL
B-hydroxybutyric acid
a-ketoglutaric acid
B-hydroxybutyric acid
Which of these is least characteristic of the postabsorptive state?

gluconcogenesis
glycogenesis
glycogenolysis
glycogenesis
Which of the following nutrients is most likely to circulate through skeletal muscle before it ever circulates through the liver?

a triglyceride
an amino acid
magnesium
a triglyceride
Insulin has all of the following effects in the absorptive state except that it does not stimulate-

glycolysis
gluconeogenesis
lipogenesis
gluconeogenesis
The basal metabolic rate should be measured when a person-

is sleeping
first rises in the morning
has just eaten a normal meal
first rises in the morning
The loss of body heat by conduction can be enhanced by-

radiation
convection
evaporation
convection
At a comfortable room temperature, the body loses the most heat by-

convection
evaporation
radiation
radiation
The quickest physiological mechanism for achieving moderate heat loss is-

cutaneous vasodilation

OR

cutaneous vasoconstriction
cutaneous vasoconstriction
Shivering warms the body because it increases the rate of-

ATP hydrolysis
vasodilation
glycolysis
ATP hydrolysis
Heat exhaustion results from-

-extreme electrolyte loss in the sweat
-excessive heat loss from the body
-a high humidity that retards evaporative cooling
extreme electrolyte loss in the sweat
Leptin is produced by ____ and inhibits the synthesis of ____.

adipocytes; orexin
adipocytes; neuropeptide Y
hepatocytes; serotonin
adipocytes; neuropeptide Y
According to one hypothesis, the satiety center has neurons called ___ that rapidly absorb glucose after a meal and send inhibitory signals to the feeding center.

glucostats
lipostts
gycerostats
glucostats
An individual has a height of six feet and a weight of 150 pounds. This individual has a BMI of ___ and is considered ___.

15; underweight
20; optimal
20; overweight
20; optimal (though, I hope that's a female)
In humans, NE stimulates the appetite for-

carbohydrates
proteins
triglycerides
carbohydrates
Carbohydrates and proteins yield about ___ kcal/g, while fats yield about ___ kcal/g when completely oxidized.

4;9
4;4
4;7
4;9
Most of thee carbohydrates in the body are found as-

blood glucose
liver glycogen
muscle glycogen
muscle glycogen
An increase in blood glucose will stimulate the release of ___ and most of any excess glucose will be stored as ___.

insulin; glycogen
insulin; fat
insulin; fat
Of the macronutrients we consume, _____ is required in the largest daily quantity and ___ is required in the smallest.

water; fats
water; protein
water; protein
Carbohydrates should account for about ___% of your daily caloric intake.

40
50
60
50
The two major dietary disaccharides are ___, and ultimately all carbohydrate digestion generates ___.

lactos and sucrose; glucose
lactose and maltose; glucose
lactos and sucrose; glucose
Which of the following vessels would have the highest concentration of glucose?

hepatic vein
hepatic portal vein
hepatic artery
hepatic portal vein
Pectin is a ___ fiber found in oats, beans, peas, carrots, brown rice, and fruits. This fiber reduces blood ___.

water-soluble; cholesterol and LDL
water soluble; fatty acids and HDL
water-soluble; cholesterol and LDL
Fats should account for about ___% of your daily caloric intake.

20
30
40
30
A major structural component of plasma membranes and myelin that is also the precursor of steroid hormones, bile acids, and vitamin D is-

cholesterol
phosholipids
thromboplastin
cholesterol
Which of the following is an unsaturated fat?

vegetable oil
coconut oil
egg yolk
vegetable oil
High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) have the highest proportion of-

lipid to protein
protein to lipid
protein to lipid
An individual who has atherosclerosis would have a high ____ ratio.

LDL: HDL
LDL: VLDL
An individual who has atherosclerosis would have a high ____ ratio.

LDL: HDL
LDL: VLDL
Vitamins A, D, E, and K are absorbed-

into blood capillaries
into lacteals
into lacteals
The catabolism reaction that breaks down glucose to pyruvic acid takes place in the-

mitochondria
cytoplasm
Golgi complex
cytoplasm
Lactic acid formed in RBCs and in fast twitch muscle fibers leaves the cells, enters the bloodstream to the ___ and oxidizes to ___.

liver; acetic acid
liver; pyruvic acid
liver; pyruvic acid
The inner membrane of mitochondrial cristae contains the protein called ___, which harnesses electrical energy to produce ATP by ___.

ATP synthase; chemiosmosis
ATP synthase; oxidation
ATPase; reduction
ATP synthase; chemiosmosis
Glycogenesis is stimulated by ___, and glycogenolysis is stimulated by ____.

insulin; aldosterone
insulin; glucagon and EP
insulin; glucagon and EP
Glucose and amino acids are absorbed into the ____ and fats are absorbed into the ____.

hepatic portal system; lymphatic system
hepatic portal system; blood capillaries
hepatic portal system; lymphatic system
About four hours after a meal, which of the following will be stimulated?

gluconeogenesis
glycogenesis
glyconeogenesis
gluconeogenesis
The postabsoptive state is regulated mainly by the __ nervous system and the hormone ___.


sympathetic; insulin
sympathetic; glucagon
sympathetic; cortisol
sympathetic; insulin