57 terms

AP World History Chapter 26-27 Terms

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Matteo Ricci
He was a christian missionary in China during the Ming Dynasty. He showed the Chinese some of the technological advances in Europe such as clocks. He failed to convert the Ming dyansty
Ming dynasty
this dynasty drove out the Mongols, and they restored the chinese traditions and the civil service exams. They rebuilt and extended the great wall. They began to decline when eunuchs gained too much power and their government became corrupted. Peasant revolts and famines lead to the Manchus coming in and conquering the chinese.
Qianlong
height of Qing Dynasty, during reign imperial treasury bulged so much on 4 occasions he cancelled tax collections.
The Son of Heaven
is the emperor who ruled China from the Forbidden city. He is thought to be all powerful.
Kangxi
confucian scholar and enlightened ruler. Organized flood-control and irrigation projects, also a conqueror and projected Chinese influence in Cent. Asia
The Qing dynasty
THe manchus, a group of pastoral nomads, founded this dynasty. They expanded their territory throughout East asia. They created a time of peace and prosperity. They had a social classes built of off not mixing with the Chinese population. Their government was ruled by and emperor, but confucian scholars had lots of power.
Manchus
overan Ming dynasty and started the Qing dynasty, pastoral nomads run by chieftan Nurhaci who unified them into a centralized state.
The Great Wall
is the wall to protect China from northern invaders; started during the Qin Dynasty, but it was extended during the Ming Dynasty.
Hongwu
founder of the Ming Dynasty, drove Mongols out and built a tightly centralized state. Made extensive use of mandarins and placed trust in Eunuchs.
Yongle
reigned 1403-1424, launched series of naval expeditions throughout the Indian Ocean basin. 1421 moved the capital of the Ming Dynasty from Nanjing to Beijing.
Confucianism Examination system
is a Chinese form of tests that rely on Confucian texts, and people who came out successful through the many tests became leaders of the Chinese government as scholar bureaucrats.
Filial piety
a virtue of respect for one's fathers, elders, and ancestors; Confucian value
Bakufu
"tent gvmt;" only meant to be a temporary replacement for the emperor's rule but was used for more than 200 years
Daimyo
"great names;" powerful territorial lords who ruled most of Japan from their vast, hereditary land holdings; shoguns (emperors) insisted that they spend one year at their home palaces but then one year at the Tokugawa court (in an attempt to limit them from building power bases)
Tokugawa Ieyasu
reigned 1600-1616; last of chieftains that brought about unification of Japan; established military gvmt known as Bakufu; descendents ruled until end of dynasty in 1867
Jesuits
worked to strengthen the Roman Catholic Christianity in Europe and spread RCC to other countries; founder of the Jesuit mission in China was Matteo Ricci; dazzled their Chinese hosts with European science, technology, and mechanical gadgetry
The Romance of the Three Kingdoms
one of the popular novels of the Ming/Qing dynasties; explored the political intrigue that followed the collapse of the Han dynasty
Zhu Xi
created Neo-Confucianism (more religious version of Confucianism); 12th century scholar
Collection of Books - gvmt urged the study of Japanese classics in the place of Chinese classics
Zheng He
Admiral of Ming dynasty; eunuch; led voyages to parts of India, Africa, and even into Red Sea; gained connections from his journeys for the imperial court
Footbinding
started during the Song Dynasty; vastly expanded during the Qing/Ming dynasty; wrapping of a woman's foot so that the bones grew in different ways; represented subordination of women in confucianism
Shogun
a military governor who ruled as a "stand-in" for emperor in Japan. Ruled through retainers who received political rights and large estates in exchange for military services. Emperor more of a figurehead.
Pulp Fiction
Cheap, fictional books that were made in China. Looked down upon by Confucians. Got the name from being made on manufactured wood pulp paper which was cheap.
Mean People
The part of the Confucian hierarchy in china. Included slaves, indentured servants, entertainers, prostitutes, and beggars.
American Food Crops
new crops, easy to grow, and were high in calories that allowed for a population increases.
Fabian Fucan
Was a supporter of Buddhism and rejected and went against Christianity.
Ihara Saikaku
Japanese writer/poet, Creator of the "books of the floating world." Much of his fiction revolved around the theme of love
The Life of the Man who Lived for Love
Book written by Ihara Saikaku
Floating Worlds
"Ukiyo", centers of Tokugawa urban culture
Neo-Confucianism
A form of Confucianism that borrowed Buddhist ideals about the soul and the individual. Filial piety, maintenance of proper roles, and loyalty to one's superiors were emphasized.
Bushido
The code of the Samurai
Dutch Learning
Single Dutch ship that was allowed into Japan each year. Only Japanese contact with outside world.
Taj Mahal
Most famous Mughal monument. Built by Shah Jahan in 18 years using 20 thousand workers. Used as a tomb for his wife and a mosque.
Shah Jahan-Built wanted to build a second for himself. Overthrown by Aurangzeb, who confined him to a small cell where he could see his wife's tomb using a mirror
Suleyman the magnificent
Height of Ottoman rule. conquered Baghdad, Tigris and Euphrates rivers. He beat to Habsburgs in Austria, briefly sieged Vienna. Conquered Hungary. Built a strong navy. Got control of Mamluk navy.
Mehmed II
Captured Constantinople in 1453 using gunpowder weapons. Conquered Serbia Greece Albania, Trebizond, Crimea, and briefly parts of Italy.
Devshirme-Ottoman policy that Christians living in the Balkans had to contribute young boys to become slaves to the sultan.
Ghazi
Religious warriors. Described as "the sword of God"
Osman
Founded Ottoman dynasty/empire. tBey (chief) of semi nomadic turks who migrated to Anatolia. Wanted to become ghazi, or Muslim Religious warrior
The Safavid Empire
Founded by Shah Ismail. The accounts of its rise were carefully controlled for propaganda purposes. Imposed Twelver Shiism on their subjects.
Divine Faith
Akbar encouraged the elaboration of a syncretic religion that focused attention on the emperor as a ruler common to all religious, ethnic, and social groups of India.
Akbar
Babur's grandson. He gathered the reins of power in his own hands following an argument with Adham Khan. He created a centralized administrative structure with ministries regulating various provinces of the empire.
Babur
"the tiger" a Chagatai Turk who claimed descent from both Chinggis Khan and Tamerlane. He made little pretense to be anything more than an adventurer and soldier.
Shah Abbas the Great
Fully revitalized the Safavid Empire. He moved the capital to Isfahan, encouraged trade, and reformed administration.
Battle of Chaldirian
Started because the Sunni Ottomans detested the Shiite Safavids and feared the spread of their propaganda.
Qizilbash
"Red Heads" Turkish followers of shiism were instructed to wear red which is where the name came from.
Safi al-Din
Leader of the Sufi religious order in North Western Persia
Shah Ismail
Founder of the Safavid Empire. Left the swamps of Gilgan near the caspian sea where he had hidden from a fmily enemy for five years. Two years later he entered Tabriz at the head of an army and laid claim to the ancient Persian imperial title, also proclaimed that the official religion of his realm would be Twelver Shiism, and he proceeded to impose it on the formerly Sunni population
Twelver Shiism
Imposed that there had been 12 infallible imams after Ali. They believed that the twelfth imam had gone into hiding to avoid religious persecution.
Mughal Empire
Founded by Babur who conquered Delhi in 1523. Babur's grandson Akbar instigated the golden era. Had conflict between Islam and Hindu. Largest expansion under Aurangzeb.
Printing Press
Jewish refugees from spain introduced the first to anatolia in the late fifteenth century. Originally not allowed to print books in turkish or arabic language within the ottoman empire but ban was lifted in 1729.
Piri Reis
Ottoman admiral and cartographer who created several large scale maps and a major navigational text, the Book of Seafaring.
Fatehpur Sikri
a city planned and constructed by Akbar and served as capital. commemorated conquest of prosperous commercial province of Gujarat.
Isfahan
Shah Abbas's capitol with famous architecture
Istanbul
bustling prosperous ottoman city. Topkapi palace was at center and housed government offices. Sultan Suleyman the magnificent built a vast religious complex called the Suleymaniye.
Dhimmi
communities of non muslims who paid a jizya and maintained personal freedoms. Means protected peoples
Jizya
tax on non-muslims
Millet
autonomous religious communities within the ottoman empire who retained their civil laws, traditions, and languages.
Role of Women
Muslim theorists universally agreed that women should have no role in public affairs and politics but they maintained influence within the family and on their husbands.
Aurangzeb
Waged relentless campaign to push Mughal authority into southern India. Large conflict between Hindu and Islam since he imposed tax on Hindus and demolished their temples.