216 terms

AP Comparative Government Chapter 1: Introduction

Chapter 1 Introduction

Terms in this set (...)

a reference to the leadership and institutions that make policy decisions for a country
the power, who has the power to make decisions? how did they get it what challenges do they face? concerned about management of power
Empirical Data
data based on factual statements and statistics, compare statistics from countries
Normative Issues
data that requires value judgments, would focus on what the statistics means
a speculative statements about the relationship between two or more variables
measurable traits or characteristics that change under different conditions
the idea that one variable causes or influences the other
Independent Variable
a variable that influences the dependent variable
Dependent Variable
a variable that depends on the influence of the independent variable
exists when a change in one variable coincides with a change in the other, MAY represent causality, but does not mean it
Three-World Approach
1.) US and its allies 2.) Soviet Union and its allies 3.) third world nations that are economically underdeveloped
Third World
nations that do not fit the first two categories and are economically underdeveloped and deprived
Civil Society
the way that citizens organize and define themselves and their interests
Informal Politics
takes into consideration not only the ways that politicians operate outside their formal powers but also the impact that beliefs, values, and actions of ordinary citizens have on policy-making
Political Change
since 1991, the world has no longer been dominated by two superpowers, has consequences reverberating in many areas, creates an opportunity to compare impact of change
Integration of Political and Economic Systems
two systems are often intertwined, attitudes and behavior of citizens are affected by economic inefficiency, etc., may then turn to government to solve economic problems
Advanced Democracies
countries having well established democratic governments and high level of economic development, six core countries, Great Britain
Communist/Post-Communist Countries
countries that have sought to create a system that limits individual freedoms in order to divide wealth more equally, flourished during 20th century, lost ground during 21st
Newly Industrializing Nations
experiencing rapid economic growth and have shown a tendency toward democratization and political and social stability, Mexico and Iran, high level of corruption
Less Developed Nations
lack significant economic development and also tend to have authoritarian government, Nigeria, high level of corruption
countries, defined by Max Weber as the organization that maintains the monopoly of violence over terror, defines who can and cannot use weapons and force, sets the rules as to how violence is used, sponsor armies, navies, etc.,
stable, long-lasting organizations that help to turn political ideas into policy, bureaucracies, legislatures, judicial systems, political parties
the ability to carry out actions or policies within their borders independently from interference either from the inside or the outside, a state unable to demonstrate it lacks autonomy
independence, may lead to exploitation by leaders and organizations, results in high level of corruption
a group of people that are bound together by a common political identity
the sense of belonging and identity that distinguishes one nation from another, often translated as patriotism
the resulting pride and loyalty that individuals feel toward their nation
normally drawn along the lines of people, "French", "English", has become tricky when people moved into other people's territories
the rules that a state sets and follows in exerting its power, endure beyond individual governments and leaders, only when policies continue for a long time
bases its authority on the will of the people, most are indirect because of large populations
Indirect Democracy
elected officials representing the people
Direct Democracy
individuals have immediate say over many decisions that the government makes
Parliamentary Systems
citizens vote for legislative representatives which in turn select the leaders of the executive branch
Presidential Systems
citizens vote for legislative representatives as well as for executive branch leaders, two branches function with separation of power
Parliamentary Sovereignty
the legislature makes the laws, controls finances, appoints and dismisses the prime minister and cabinet, and debates public issues, cabinet ends up initiating legislation as the result of parties, majority parties votes for bills, eventually supports the legislation, prime minister and cabinet are leaders of majority party no separation of powers exists, Parliamentary System, separation in executive branch
Head of State
a role that symbolizes the power and nature of the regime
Head of Government
a role that deals with the everyday tasks of running the government
Presidential Systems
roles of head of state and head of government are given to one person, elected by people, checks and balances, separation of power, each branch must have an independent base of authority, US, Nigeria, Mexico
Checks and Balances
between legislative and executive and sometimes judicial
Separation of Power
ensures that power is shared and that one branch does not come to dominate the others, power is diffused and the policy-making process is slowed down
Semi-Presidential System
a prime minister coexists with a president who is directly elected by the people and who holds a significant degree of power, decisions are made by elites wihout impact from citizens, may be ruled by a single dictator, hereditary monarch, small group of aristocrats, single party, economy controlled by political elite, communism or corporatism
a theory developed in the 19th century by Karl Marx and altered in the early 20th century by V.I. Lenin, party controls everything from government to social lofe
an arrangement in which government officials interact with people/groups outside the government before they set policy, outside contacts are generally business and labor leaders
Patron-Client Systems
systems that provide reciprocal favors and services to supporters
Authoritarian Regimes
small group of elites exercising power, citizens with little or no impact in government, no constitutional responsibility for leaders, restriction of civil rights and civil liberties, still legitimate governments!, do not seek to control all aspects of political and economic systems
similar to authoritarian, negative connotations, Soviet Union during the Cold War, generally have a strong ideological goal that many authoritarian systems lack
Military Rule
prevalent in Latin America, Africa, Asia, military can intervene and solve problems where legitimacy and stability are in question, leaders often restrict civil rights and liberties and keep political parties from forming, lacks specific ideology and leaders have no source of authority, join with the state bureaucracy
Coup d'etat
a forced takeover of the governent, may not have widespread support among the people
Modern Corporatism
a method through which business, labor, and interests groups bargain with the state over economic policy, emerged as a way to control public by creating organizations to represent interests of the public, only handful have right to speak for the people, gives the public a limited influence in the policy-making process, but interest groups are run by state
the means a regime uses to get support from citizens
a system in which the state provides specific benefits or favors to a single person or small group in return for support, relies on individual patronage rather than organizations that serve a large group of people
Democratic Corporatism
corporatist practices have emerged in democracies, usually plays into economic policy and regulation, etc., formation of interest groups is recognized by the state, organizations developed legally-binding links with the state agencies, become semi-public agencies
a situation in which power is split among many groups that compete for the change to influence the government's decision making, competition is important way for citizens to express need to government, dialogue between interest groups and the state is voluntary, formation of interest groups is spontaneous
the right to rule, as determined by their own citizens, can be secured in many numbers, three kinds
Traditional Legitimacy
rests upon the belief that tradition should determine who should rule and how, particular family may rule because it has always been so, involves myths and legends, rituals and ceremonies, most monarchies, thrones, crowns, etc., may be shaped by religion, Inca government
traditional religious law in the Middle East
Charismatic Legitimacy
based on the dynamic personality of an individual leader or small group, Napoleon, notoriously short-lived because it does not survive its founder
Rational-Legal Democracy
based on neither tradition nor on single personality, system of well-established laws and procedures, highly institutionalized, people obey leaders because they believe in the laws that bind them, common law or code law, most states based on this
Common Law
based on tradition, past practices, and legal precedents set by the courts and through interpretations of statutes, legal legislation, and past rulings, English in origin, found in Britain, US, etc.
Code Law
based on a comprehensive system of written rules of law divided into commercial, civil, and criminal codes, French, Germany, Spanish
Economic Well-Being
citizens credit government with economic prosperity, legitimacy reinforced by it
Historical Tradition/Longevity
if a government has been in place for a long time, citizens are more likely to view it as legitimate
Charismatic Leadership
a powerful factor in establishing legitimacy
Nationalism/Shared Political Culture
if citizens identify strongly with their nation, they are more accepting of legitimacy of government
Satisfaction with Government's Performance
if citizens receive benefits from the government, if the government wins wars, provides protection, citizens will see it as legitimate
Political Culture
refers to the collection of political beliefs, values, practices, and institutions that the government is based on, government will reflect individualism, for example, in the way it is run, ALWAYS CHANGING
Social Capital
the amount of reciprocity and trust that exists among citizens and between citizens and the state, societies with low may be inclined toward authoritarian, more may be democracy, Islam is incompatible with democracy, critics say it relies on stereotypes
Consensual Political Culture
although citizens may disagree on some political process, they generally agree on how decisions are made, issues addressed, etc., accepts both the legitimacy and solutions to problems
Conflictual Political Culture
sharply divided citizens, often on legitimacy and solutions to problems, disagreement on communism v. capitalism, may result in political subcultures
Political Ideologies
sets of political values held by individuals regarding the basic goals of government and politics, long lasting
places emphasis on individual political and economic freedom, modern democracies, seek to maximize freedom for all people, citizens have the right to disagree with state decisions, government should listen to its citizens
values equality over freedom, rejects the idea that personal freedom will ensure prosperity for the majority, competition will lead to concentration of prosperity among small group, advocate takeover of resources by state which will insure economic equality exists
shares the value of equality but is influenced by liberal value of freedom, accept and promote private ownership and free market principles, believe state has a strong role to play in regulating the economy and providing benefits, stronger in Europe
devalue the idea of individual freedom, rejects value of equality, accepts the idea that people exist in inferior and superior groups, state has the right to mold society, Nazi Germany
have been important source of group identity, US has established separation of church and state, religion serves as basis for interest groups, voluntary associations within the civil society, Britain is largely secularized
a type of change that does not advocate the overthrow of basic institutions, want to change some of the methods that political leaders used to reach goals, do not advocate to overthrow basic institutions
implies change at a more basic level, involves major revision or overthrowing of existing institutions, impacts more than one area of life, Industrial Revolution, normally aim at one part and change all parts
Coup d'etats
represent the most limited type of change, "blows to the state" replace leadership of the country with new leaders, occurs in countries where governments are weak
a belief that rapid, dramatic changes need to be made to existing society, usually think current system cannot be saved and must be overturned
supports reform and gradual change rather than revolution, not to be confused with political ideology, do not believe systems are permanently broken but they do believe they need to be repaired, may support notion that eventual transformation best take place
much less supportive of change in general, change is disruptive, can bring out unseen outcomes, order might be threatened by change
Reactionary Beliefs
go further to protect against change than do conservative beliefs, oppose revolution and reform, but find the status quo unacceptable, want to turn back to an earlier era, more willing to use violence
more and more nations and turning to popular form of government, poverty poses large obstacle
Competitive Elections
elections that are regular, free, and fair, offers a real possibility that the incumbent government may be defeated
Liberal Democracies
civil liberties, rule of law, neutrality of the judiciary, open civil society, civilian control of the military
Substantive Democracies
where citizens have access to multiple sources of information, no country has perfect
Illiberal/Procedural Democracies
countries that have democratic procedures but have significant restrictions on them, presidents hold large share of the power, political parties are restricted so elections lack competitiveness,
"Third Wave" of Democratization
proposed by Samuel Huntington, "first wave" developed over time, "second wave" after WWII, characterized by de-colonization, this wave characterized by defeat of rulers in South America, Europe, and Africa, occurs from loss of legitimacy, expansion of urban middle class, emphasis on "human rights", snowball effect
Snowball Effect
when one country in a region becomes democratic, it influences others to do so
Democratic Consolidation
creates a stable political system that is supported by all parts of the society, willingness on part of parties, readiness on party of people to participate in the process, all institutions and people participate, so democracy penetrates all aspects, etc.
Revolution of Rising Expectations
political discontent is fueled if the crisis is preceded by a period of relative improvement in the standard of living
Political Liberalization
a state that progresses from procedural democracy to substantive democracy through democratic consolidation, eventually leads other states to
Roots of Liberalism
19th century Europe, proponents supported both political and economic freedoms, gave rise to belief that political liberalism goes in hand with economic liberalism
middle-class professionals or businessmen, wanted their views to be represented in government and their economic goals to be unhampered, valued political freedoms and the rule of law, wanted economic freedoms, advocated free trade, values clashed with ideas of radicals
Command Economy
the government owns almost all industrial enterprises and retail sales, economies were managed by party-dominated planning committee, produced blueprints for economic production in five-year plans, fading away
Economic Liberalization
process of limiting power of the state over private property and market forces
Pure Market Economy
an economy that receives no control from the government
Mixed Economy
a market economy that receives significant control from the government
Factors Moving to Markets
people believed government was too big, command economies involved huge governments controlling every aspect, lack of success in command economies, collapse of Soviet Union hurt their changes, led many other nations to move
the term that describes the state's recreation of a market in which property, labor, goods, and services can all function in a competitive environment, goes through cycles of prosperity and scarcity, depression led many to go to mixed
the transfer of state-owned property to private ownership
divisions based on ethnic or cultural identity
identities based on nationhood
Politicization of Religion
has dominated world politics of early 21st century, national identities remain strong, most Westerners have been caught off guard
Samuel Huntington
argued that our most important and dangerous future conflicts will be based on clashes of civilizations, not on socio-economic or even ideological differences
Social Cleavages
religion, ethnic groups, race, social and economic classes all interact with the political system and have a tremendous impact on policy-making, theoretically out of the realm of politics
Bases of Social Cleavages
what mix of ethnic groups does a nation have? how deep are they? which appear most significantly?
Cleavages and Political Institutions
how are cleavages expressed in the political system? is party membership based on cleavages? do political elites usually come from one group or another?
Social Class
even though class awareness has declined, its still a basis, less developed nations tensions may appear between landless peasants and property owners
Ethnic Cleavages
most divisive and explosive social cleavages, full scale civil wars in the world, based on different cultural identities, etc.
Religious Cleavages
religious differences are intertwined, Northern Ireland, etc., may exist between people of similar ethnic backgrounds, etc.
Regional Cleavages
differing political views between people living in different geographic regions, populations compete for government resources such as money, jobs, and development projects, regional differences are linked to varying degrees of economic development
Coinciding Cleavages
when every dispute aligns the same groups against each other
Cross-Cutting Cleavages
divide society into many potential groups that may conflict on one issue but cooperate on another
Political Efficacy
a citizen's capacity to understand and influence political events, high level means they believe the government takes their input seriously and cares about what they saw, own abilities to understand issues
Political Socialization
how do citizens learn about politics? do electronic and print shape their views? "propaganda"?, a person's political views are a combination of many feelings and attitudes both general and specific identifications
Subject Activities
citizens contact government through these, involve obedience, authoritarian governments
Types of Political Participation
obeying laws, following military orders, paying taxes, citizens may play a more active part in the process, voting, work for political candidates, attend rallies, contribute money, join political parties
Voting Behavior
how do citizens vote? how often do they participate in elections? what is the purpose of elections? etc.
Factors Influencing Political Beliefs
cleavages in a country, do they make a difference in citizens' political beliefs? are women's beliefs different from those of men? are younger people as likely to vote as older people are?
Transparent Government
a government that operates openly by keeping citizens informed about government operations and political issues and by responding to citizens' questions
Level of Transparency
Obama stated that government should be transparent, low levels are often found in authoritarian governments, corruption is promoted
Social Movements
refer to organized collective activities that aim to bring about or resist fundamental change in an existing group or society, try to influence political leaders to make policy decisions that support their goals, members step outside traditional channels for bringing about social change, take stands on issues
African National Congress
a political organization that sought to overthrow the state-supported system of apartheid in South Africa
Civil Society
refers to voluntary organizations outside of the state that help people define and advance their own interests, usually strong in liberal democracies where individual freedoms are valued and protected, may represent class, religion, ethnic interests, helps to define the people's relationship to and role in politics and community affairs, weak in less-developed countries
Tyranny of the Majority
the tendency in democracies to allow majority rule to neglect the rights and liberties of minorities
a universal political order that draws its identity and values from everywhere
Nongovernmental Organizations
national and international groups, independent of any state, that pursue policy objectives and foster public participation, Doctors without Borders and Amnesry International
Civic Education
communities learn their democratic rights and how to use those rights to give meaningful input to political institutions
Political Institutions
structures of a political system that carry out the work of the governing, may have the same structure but different types in different countries, legislatures, executives, judicial systems, bureaucracies, armies
Unitary System
a system that concentrates all policy-making powers in one central geographic place, central government is responsible for most policy areas
Confederal System
spreads the power among many sub-units and has a weak central government
Federal System
divides the power between the central government and sub-units and regional bodies have significant powers, such as taxation, etc.
countries must cope with influences outside themselves, a process that encourages states to pool their sovereignty in order to gain political, economic, and social clout, binds states together with common policies and rules, OPEC, EU, NAFTA, etc.
an integration of social, environmental, economic, and cultural activities of nations that has resulted from increasing national contacts, complicates the ability of states to maintain sovereignty since it binds them together, changed the nature of comparative politics
Foreign Direct Investment
purchase of assets in a country by a foreign firm
a tendency for people to base their loyalty on ethnicity, language, religion, or cultural identity
Supranational Organizations
cooperating groups of nations that operate on either a regional or international level for major decisions and rules
Centripetal Forces
bind together the people of a state, nationalism, encourages allegiance to a single country, promotes loyalty and commitment, use of flags, rituals, holidays, etc., schools, armed forces, religion help to keep people in support, fast transportation, communication systems, NBCs
Centrifugal Forces
destabilizing forces that hurt the government and encourage the country to fall apart, country that is not well-organized could lose loyalty of its citizens, strong institutions may also challenge the government like Russian Orthodoxy in USSR, nationalism can hurt if people are more loyal to ethnicity than state,
Separatist Movements
nationalities within a country may demand independence, movements challenged the government for their independence, Basques, Lithuanians, etc.
the tendency to decentralize decision-making to regional governments, helps to lessen the centrifugal forces
Ethnic Group
shares a well-developed sense of belonging to the same culture, based on a unique mixture of language, religion, and customs, strong groups that differ from majority could cause problems
the tendency for an ethnic group to see itself as a distinct nation with a right to autonomy or independence, fundamental centrifugal force promoting devolution, French in Quebec, etc.
Economic Forces
economic inequalities, regional, Italy split by "Ancona Line", differences between northern prosperity and southern prosperity, formation of the Northern League and independent state of "Padania" would shed the economic drag of the South
Ancona Line
an invisible line extending from Rome to the Adriatic coast at Ancona
Spatial Forces
distance, remoteness, peripheral location promote devolution especially if separated by water or mountains, etc.
Head of State
a role that symbolizes and represents the people, both nationally and internationally, and may or may not have any real policy-making power
Head of Government
deals with everyday tasks of running the state and usually directs the activities of other members of the executive branch, distinction is seen in Britain
Functions of Chief Executive
usually most important person in policy-making, initiating new policies and playing role in adoption, president usually has veto power in presidential systems, parliamentary system does not have that authority, oversees policy implementation, holds others accountable, foreign policy
parliamentary system most important, ministers head all major departments and is led by prime minister, ministers are leaders of majority party, presidential system president chooses the cabinet from any area of political life, cabinet members often have more independence
Cabinet Coalition
several parties join forces and are represented in different cabinet posts, problem is they tend to be unstable especially they result in fragmented legislature
consist of agencies that implement government policy, usually part of executive branch of government, size has increased over the course of the centuries, due to government efforts to improve health, security, welfare
Basic Characteristics of Bureaucracy
Weber, hierarchical authority structure, task specialization, extensive rules, clear goals, merit principle, impersonality
Hierarchical Authority Structure
a chain of command that is hierarchical, the top bureaucrat has ultimate control and authority flows down
Task Specialization
a clear division of labor in which every individual has a specialized job
Extensive Rules
clearly written, well-established formal rules that all people in the organization follow
Clear Goals
a clearly defined set of goals that all people in the organization strive toward
Merit Principle
merit-based hiring and promotion, no granting of jobs to family or friends
job performance is judged by productivity, or how much work the individual gets done
Discretionary Power
power to make small decisions in implementing legislative and executive decisions, modern issue with bureaucracies in democracies, add up to significant policy-making influence, require decisions to be made by elected officials
Patronage System
a system in which political supporters received jobs in return for their assistance in getting the president elected, big problem in bureaucracies, Stalin gave jobs to his cronies, Garfield, etc.
a military regime formed a ruling coalition that included military officers and civilian bureaucrats, Brazil, Argentina, etc., coalition seized control of the government and determined which groups would be allowed to participate, controlled in name of efficiency
Non-elected Positions
bureaucrats are appointed and salaried, not elected by public
Impersonal Structure
goal oriented, little concern for personal feelings, meant to be effective
Formal Qualifications for Jobs
must factor in education, background, etc., in hiring to achieve goals efficiently
Red Tape/Inefficiency
large bureaucracies stumble on own weight, the orderly flow of business appears to break down at a certain size and complexity
the branch of government charged with making laws, formal approval is usually required for major policies, 80% of nations have them
two houses, most usual form, House of Lords and House of Commons, lower house determined by population, upper house the same, helps to balance out the interests of both groups, the people and states, helps disperse power by requiring both houses to approve legislation
one house
Functions of Legislatures
formulate, debate, and vote on political policies, control the country's budget in terms of both fund-raising and spending, assemblies may appoint important officials, elite recruitment, hearings regarding behaviors of public officials, hold different degrees of policy making power
Elite Recruitment
identifying future leaders of the government
all states have some form of legal structure, role is rarely limited to routinely adjudicating civil and criminal cases, courts in authoritarian systems generally have little or no independence,may be able to impose restrictions on what political leaders do, growth has spurred debate on command of the court
Constitutional Courts
courts that serve to defend democratic principles of a country against infringement by both private citizens and the government, more recent phenomenon, highest judicial body
Judicial Review
the mechanism that allows courts to review laws and executive actions for their constitutionality, established in US
Linkage Institutions
groups that connect the government to its citizens, such as political parties, interest groups, and print and electronic media, size and development depends partly on the size of the population, partly on the scope of government activity, larger the population the greater change it will have a better developed institution
Party System
array of political parties operating in a particular country and the nature of the relationships among them
perform many functions in democracies, help bring different people and ideas together to establish the means by which the majority can rule, provide labels for candidates that help citizens decide how to vote, hold politicians accountable to the electorate and other political elites
Two-party System
rarity, occurring in only 15 contries, US
Multi-party System
usually arise in countries with strong parliamentary systems, particularly those that use a proportional representation method for elections
Electoral Systems
the rules that decide how votes are cast, counted, and translated into seats in a legislature
a system in which countries divide their constituencies into single member districts in which candidates compete for a single representative's seat
first-past-the-post, winner does not need a majority to win, simply needs to get more votes than anyone else, encourage large, broad-based parties because no matter how many people run in a district, the person with the largest number of votes wins, encourages parties to become larger to "umbrella" more voters
Single-Member Districts
electoral district from which one person is chosen by the voters for each elected office
Proportional Representation
creates multi-member districts, voters cast ballot for party rather than candidate, percentage of votes a party receives determines how many seats they gain, encourages multiple parties because they have a good chance of getting some candidates elected, allows minor parties
Multi-Member Districts
more than one legislative seat is contested in each district
Mixed System
combines the first-past-the-post and proportional representation
Election of Public Officials
number of elected officials varies widely, unitary system, many officials and elected locally, legislature is at national level, citizens of EU elect representatives to Parliament, lower houses are more likely to be nominated by the people
allowing public votes on policy issues, the public makes a direct decision about policy itself, US has it on local level
a ballot to consult public opinion in a nonbinding way
a vote on policy that is initiated by the people, less common, must propose an issue for nation-wide vote, etc.
Interest Groups
organizations of like-minded people whose main political goal is to influence and shape public policy, independent from government are important in maintaining strong society, occupation, labor, business, etc., may be national or local, nonpolitical goals, promoting interest in product
Differences between Parties and Interest Groups
parties influence government through electoral process, run candidates for office, interest only support candidates, do not run candidates, parties generate support for broad range of topics, interest group just one
Strength of Interest Groups
determining degree of autonomy the groups have from the government, groups need to be able to independently decide what their goals are, authoritarian groups have no independence, like in China
Transmission Belts
referred to by Frank Wilson, interest groups in authoritarian governments that have very little independence from the government, convey to members the interests of the party elite
Interest Group Pluralism
autonomous interest groups compete with each other and with government for influence over state policies, guard their independence by selecting their own leaders and raising their own funds, rival groups use tactics to make policies
fewer groups compete than under pluralism, one for each interest sector, labor, agriculture, management, group's monopoly is confirmed by the state
State Corporatism
the state determines which groups are brought in
Societal Corporatism (Neocorporatism)
interest groups take the lead and dominate the state
Political Elites
leaders who have a disproportionate share of policy-making power, democracies still have them despite their competitive elections
ways to identify and select people for future leadership positions
the process that determines the procedure for replacing leaders when they resign, die, or are no longer effective
Public Policy
all systems set policy, whether by legislative vote, executive decision, judicial rulings, combination, interest groups and parties play a large role, generally directed toward addressing issues
Economic Performance
common policy issue, governments are concerned with economic health of nation, participate in international trade
Social Welfare
citizens' needs, health, employment, family assistance, education, states provide different levels of assistance, may display different attitudes, literacy rates, distribution of income, life expectancy, education levels
Gini Index
a mathematical formula that measures the amount of economic inequality in a society
Human Development Index
measures the well-being of a country's people by factoring in adult literacy, life expectancy, education enrollment
Political Rights
the promotion of equality
Civil Liberties
the promotion of freedom
Civil Liberties/Political Rights
government should be proactive in promoting these, liberal democracies vary in terms of which liberties should be preserved, rights to assemble and criticize, etc.
Freedom House
an organization that studies democracies around the world and ranks them on a 1-7 scale
governments take a big interest in protecting it, European countries have had a surge of interest in "green" parties, promoted development of a global civil society by operating across borders, etc.
Gross Domestic Product
economic indicator that compiles date on all forms of wealth produced in a nation, all goods and services
GDP per capita
economic measure that takes the total value of GDP and divides it by population, reveal more information about living standards
Purchasing Power Parity per capita
adjusts for relative costs of living in various countries and converts different economies into a single currency, GDP can be deceiving
Comparative Indexes
statistical data used to compare countries, estimates compiled by bureaus and agencies such as UN and the world Bank