girl's first menstrual period, signaling that she has begun ovulation
Pregnancy is biologically possible
ovulation and menstruation are often irregular for years after menarche.
boy's first ejaculation of sperm
Erections can occur as early as infancy, but ejaculation signals sperm production.
organic chemical substance that is produced by one body tissue and conveyed via the bloodstream to another to affect some physiological function.
gland in the brain that responds to a signal from the hypothalamus by producing many hormones, including those that regulate growth and control other glands, among them the adrenal and sex glands.
Two glands, located above the kidneys, that produce hormones (including the "stress hormones" epinephrine [adrenaline] and norepinephrine).
HPA (hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal) axis-
The sequence of a chain reaction of hormone production, originating in the hypothalamus and moving to the pituitary and then to the adrenal glands.
The paired sex glands (ovaries in females, testicles in males). The gonads produce hormones and gametes.
A sex hormone, considered the chief estrogen. Females produce more estradiol than males do.
A sex hormone, the best known of the androgens (male hormones). Secreted in far greater amounts by males than by females
The rise in hormone levels that signals puberty
normal in those as young as age 8 or as old as age 14.
Precocious puberty (sexual development before age 8)
occurs about once in 5,000 children, for unknown reasons.
Children who have a relatively large proportion of body fat
experience puberty sooner than do their thin contemporaries
A hormone that affects appetite and is believed to be involved in the onset of puberty. Leptin levels increase during childhood and peak at around age 12
Data on puberty over the centuries reveals a dramatic example of a long-term statistical increase or decrease
Each generation has experienced puberty a few weeks earlier, and has grown a centimeter or so taller, than did the preceding one.
The secular trend has stopped in developed nations.
lower self-esteem, more depression, and poorer body image than later-maturing girls.
Nutritional deficiencies result from
food choices that young adolescents are allowed, even enticed, to make.
Deficiencies of iron, calcium, zinc, and other minerals may be even more problematic during adolescence
than vitamin deficiencies, since minerals are needed for bone and muscle growth.
Boys want to look taller and stronger
a concern that increases from ages 12 to 17, partly because girls value well-developed muscles in males.
An eating disorder characterized by self-starvation. Affected individuals voluntarily under eat and often over exercise, depriving their vital organs of nutrition. Anorexia can be fatal
An eating disorder characterized by binge eating and subsequent purging, usually by induced vomiting and/or use of laxatives.
Each body part increases in size on a schedule:
A weight increase usually precedes a height increase, and growth of the limbs precedes growth of the torso.
-A height spurt follows the increase in body fat, and then a muscle spurt occurs.
Primary sex characteristics
parts of the body that are directly involved in reproduction, including the vagina, uterus, ovaries, testicles, and penis.
Secondary sex characteristics
Physical traits that are not directly involved in reproduction but that indicate sexual maturity, such as a man's beard and a woman's breasts.
Other manifestations of the sexual hormones
Fantasizing, flirting, handholding, staring, displaying, and touching all reflect gender, availability, and culture.
Compared to 100 years ago, adolescent sexual development is more hazardous, for five reasons:
Earlier puberty and weaker social taboos mean teens have sexual experiences at younger ages. Early sex correlates with depression and drug abuse.
2. Most contemporary teenage mothers have no husbands to help them, whereas many teenage mothers a century ago were married
3. Raising a child has become more complex and expensive.
4. Mothers of teenagers are often employed and therefore less available as caregivers for their teenager's child.
5. Sexually transmitted infections are more widespread and dangerous.
sexually transmitted infection (STI)
A disease spread by sexual contact, including syphilis, gonorrhea, genital herpes, chlamydia, and HIV.
child sexual abuse
Any erotic activity that arouses an adult and excites, shames, or confuses a child, whether or not the victim protests and whether or not genital contact is involved.
The limbic system (fear, emotional impulses)
matures before the prefrontal cortex (planning ahead, emotional regulation).
That means the instinctual and emotional areas develop before the reflective ones do.
When emotions are intense, especially when one is with peers,
the logical part of the brain shuts down.
When stress, arousal, passion, sensory bombardment, drug intoxication, or deprivation is extreme
the adolescent brain is overtaken by impulses that might shame adults.
Several aspects of adolescent brain development are positive:
increased mylenation, which decreases reaction time
Several aspects of adolescent brain development are positive:
enhanced dopamine activity, promoting pleasurable experiences
Several aspects of adolescent brain development are positive:
synaptic growth enhances moral development and openness to new experiences and ideas
A characteristic of adolescent thinking that leads young people (ages 10 to 14) to focus on themselves to the exclusion of others.
An aspect of adolescent egocentrism characterized by an adolescent's belief that his or her thoughts, feelings, or experiences are unique, more wonderful or awful than anyone else's.
An adolescent's egocentric conviction that he or she cannot be overcome or even harmed by anything that might defeat a normal mortal, such as unprotected sex, drug abuse, or high-speed driving.
The other people who, in an adolescent's egocentric belief, are watching and taking note of his or her appearance, ideas, and behavior. This belief makes many teenagers self-conscious
Formal Operational Thought
In Piaget's theory, the fourth and final stage of cognitive development, characterized by more systematic logic and the ability to think about abstract ideas.
Reasoning that includes propositions and possibilities that may not reflect reality.
Reasoning from a general statement, premise, or principle, through logical steps, to figure out (deduce) specifics. (Sometimes called top-down reasoning.)
Reasoning from one or more specific experiences or facts to a general conclusion; may be less cognitively advanced than deduction. (Sometimes called bottom-up reasoning.)
Intuitive, Emotional Thought
Adolescents find it much easier and quicker to forget about logic and follow their impulses.
The notion that two networks exist within the human brain, one for emotional and one for analytical processing of stimuli.
Thought that arises from an emotion or a hunch, beyond rational explanation, and is influenced by past experiences and cultural assumptions.
Thought that results from analysis, such as a systematic ranking of pros and cons, risks and consequences, possibilities and facts. Analytic thought depends on logic and rationality.
The period after primary education (elementary or grade school) and before tertiary education (college). It usually occurs from about age 12 to age 18, although the age range varies somewhat by school and by nation.
A school for children in the grades between elementary and high school. Middle school usually begins with grade 5 or 6 and ends with grade 8.
The gap between students who have access to computers and those who do not, often a gap between rich and poor. In the United States and most developed nations, this gap has now been bridged due to the prevalence of computers in schools.
The Internet and other forms of electronic technology can accelerate learning, but what they have to teach may not always be beneficial.
Adolescent cognitive growth benefits from shared experiences and opinions.
Often communication via the Internet bolsters fragile self-esteem.
Adolescents sometimes share personal information online
without thinking about the possible consequences.
Bullying that occurs via Internet insults and rumors, texting, anonymous phone calls, and video embarrassment.
Some fear that the anonymity provided by electronic technology brings out the worst in people.
One expert on bullying believes that cyberbullying is similar to other forms, new in mode but not in intent or degree of harm.
The transition from one school to another often impairs a young person's ability to function and learn.
Changing schools just when the growth spurt is occurring and sexual characteristics are developing is bound to create stress.
The first year in any new school (middle school, high school, or college) correlates with
increased bullying, decreased achievement, depression, and eating disorders.
an increasing number of high school students are enrolled in classes that are designed to be more rigorous
and that require them to pass externally scored exams.
-greater number of requirements that all students must fulfill in order to receive an academic diploma.
An evaluation that is critical in determining success or failure.
A single test that determines whether a student will graduate or be promoted is a highstakes test.
one result of pushing almost all high school students to pursue an academic curriculum
is that more are prepared for college.
-Another result is that more students drop out of high school.
Identity versus Role Confusion:
Erikson's term for the fifth stage of development, in which the person tries to figure out "Who am I?" but is confused as to which of many possible roles to adopt.
A consistent definition of one's self as a unique individual, in terms of roles, attitudes, beliefs, and aspirations.
Erikson's term for the attainment of identity, or the point at which a person understands who he or she is as a unique individual, in accord with past experiences and future plans.
Role confusion (identity diffusion):
A situation in which an adolescent does not seem to know or care what his or her identity is.
Erikson's term for premature identity formation, which occurs when an adolescent adopts parents' or society's roles and values wholesale, without questioning or analysis.
Four Areas of Identity Achievement
Religious Identity, Gender Identity, Political/Ethnic Identity, Vocational identity
A person's acceptance of the roles and behaviors that society associates with the biological categories of male and female.
A term that refers to whether a person is sexually and romantically attracted to others of the same sex, the opposite sex, or both sexes.
Vocational identity why not acheived until 25:
Few teenagers can find meaningful work.
It takes years to acquire the skills needed for many careers (premature to select a vocation at age 16).
Most jobs are unlike those of a generation ago, so it is unwise for youth to foreclose on a vocation.
Most new jobs are in the service or knowledge sectors of the economy. To be employable, adolescents spend years mastering literacy, logic, technology and human relations.
Conflicts with Parents
Parent-adolescent conflict typically peaks in early adolescence and is more a sign of attachment than of distance
Although teenagers may act as if they no longer need their parents, neglect can be very destructive.
Adolescents are more dependent on their parents if
they are female and/or from a minority ethnic group. (Emotional dependency)
-This can be either repressive or healthy, depending on the culture and the specific circumstances.
Parents' ongoing awareness of what their children are doing, where, and with whom.
Worst: Psychological control - a disciplinary technique in which parents make a child feel guilty and impose gratefulness by threatening to withdraw love and support
A group of adolescents made up of close friends who are loyal to one another while excluding outsiders.
A larger group of adolescents who have something in common but who are not necessarily friends.
Encouragement to conform to one's friends or contemporaries in behavior, dress, and attitude; usually considered a negative force, as when adolescent peers encourage one another to defy adult authority.
Teenagers select friends whose values and interests they share, abandoning friends who follow other paths.
Peers facilitate both destructive and constructive behaviors in one another.
Makes it easier to do both the wrong thing ("Let's all skip school") and the right thing ("Let's study together").
Helps individuals do things that they would be unlikely to do on their own.
Destructive peer support in which one person shows another how to rebel against authority or social norms.
Sequence of male-female relationships during childhood and adolescence
Groups of friends, exclusively one sex or the other
A loose association of girls and boys, with public interactions within a crowd
Small mixed-sex groups of the advanced members of the crowd
Formation of couples, with private intimacies
First romances appear in high school and rarely last more than a year.
Girls claim a steady partner more often than boys do.
Breakups and unreciprocated crushes are common.
Adolescents are crushed by rejection and sometimes contemplate revenge or suicide.
Many do not acknowledge their sexual orientation.
National and peer cultures often make the homosexual young person feel ashamed.
Many gay youth date members of the other sex to hide their true orientation.
Past cohorts of gay youth had higher rates of clinical depression, drug abuse, and suicide than did their heterosexual peers.
True number of homosexual, heterosexual, bisexual, or asexual youth is unknown.
Specifics of peer education depend on the group
All members of a clique may be virgins, or all may be sexually active.
in church-based crowds. If a group considers itself a select minority, then virginity.
Only about half of U.S. adolescent couples discuss issues such as
pregnancy and STIs and many are unable to come to a shared conclusion based on accurate information.
Parents often underestimate their adolescent's need for information.
Many parents know little about their adolescents' sexual activity and wait to talk about sex until their child is already in a romantic relationship.
Gender and age
most significant correlates of parent-child conversations.
Parents are more likely to talk about sex to daughters than to sons and to older adolescents (over 15) than to younger ones.
1998: U.S. government decided to spend about $1 billion over 10 years to promote abstinence-only sex education in public schools
Abstinence-only curriculum had little effect
The most effective programs
begin before high school
include assignments that require parent-child communication
focus on behavior (not just on conveying information)
provide medical referrals on request
last for years
The rate of teenage pregnancy in the United States
has declined dramatically since 1960
-Higher than in any other developed nation because of American teenagers use less contraception.
-86% of new teenage mothers are unmarried
-About 20% of teenage couples use the pill and condoms, to prevent both pregnancy and infection.
Self-esteem for boys and girls
dips at puberty
Signs of depression are common
36% of girls and 21% of boys experienced depressed symptoms within the past year
Feelings of hopelessness, lethargy, and worthlessness that last two weeks or more
20% of female and 10% of male teenagers experience clinical depression.
Cause for the gender disparity may be biological, psychological, or social.
Repeatedly thinking and talking about past experiences; can contribute to depression and is more common in girls.
Thinking about suicide, usually with some serious emotional and intellectual or cognitive overtones.
Adolescent suicidal ideation is common, completed suicides are not.
Adolescents are less likely to kill themselves than adults are.
Misconceptions about adolescent suicide rates
The suicide rate for adolescents, low as it is, is higher than it was in the early 1960.
Statistics on "youth" often include emerging adults, whose suicide rates are higher than those of adolescents.
Adolescent suicides capture media attention.
Suicide attempts are relatively common in adolescence.
Any potentially lethal action against the self that does not result in death.
Parasuicide is common, completed suicide is not.
Increased anger during puberty is normal
but most adolescents express their anger in acceptable ways
A person whose criminal activity typically begins in early adolescence and continues throughout life; a career criminal
Nations have markedly different rates of adolescent drug use,
even nations with common boundaries.
-These variations are partly due to differing laws the world over.
Most adolescents in the U.S. have experimented with drug use
and say that they could find illegal drugs if they tried.
Gender differences are reinforced
by social constructions about proper male and female behavior (e.g., "If I don't smoke, I'm not a real man").
Slows down growth (impairs digestion, nutrition, and appetite)
Reduces the appetite
Causes protein and vitamin deficiencies caused
Can damage developing hearts, lungs, brains, and reproductive systems
Most frequently abused drug among North American teenagers
Heavy drinking may permanently impair memory and self-control by damaging the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex.
Alcohol allows momentary denial of problems when problems get worse because they have been ignored, more alcohol is needed
Denial can have serious consequences.
Adolescents who regularly smoke marijuana are more likely to drop out of school, become teenage parents, and be unemployed.
Marijuana affects memory, language proficiency, and motivation.
Occasional drug use excites the limbic system and interferes with the prefrontal cortex
drug users are more emotional and less reflective.
The idea that each new generation forgets what the previous generation learned. As used here, the term refers to knowledge about the harm drugs can do.
Drug Abuse Resistance Education
Features adults (usually police officers) telling
students about the dangers of drugs
DARE has no impact on later drug use
May increase drug use because
The advertisements make drugs seem exciting
Adolescents recognize the exaggeration
the ads give some teenagers ideas about ways to show defiance
Advertising campaigns against teen smoking:
Antismoking announcements produced by cigarette companies increase use
Preventing Drug Abuse: What Works?
-Prevention and moderation of adolescent drug use and abuse are possible.
-Antidrug programs and messages need to be carefully designed to avoid a backlash or generational forgetting.
aka adulthood or youth
-period between the ages of 18 and 25, which is now widely thought of as a separate developmental stage.
Traditionally, the years between ages 18 and 25
were a time for hard physical work and childbearing.
Physical work and parenthood are no longer expected
of every young adult in the twenty-first century.
The current level of food availability means
emerging adults have reached full height (girls usually by age 16, boys by age 18).
For both sexes, muscle growth and fat accumulation continue
into the early 20s, when women attain adult breast and hip size and men reach full shoulder width and upper-arm strength.
By age 20,
immune system has developed well enough to fight off everything from the sniffles to cancer.
By age 20,
blood pressure is normal, teeth develop no new cavities, heart rate is steady, the brain is fully grown, and lung capacity is as large as it will ever be.
Death from disease almost never occurs during emerging adulthood.
The adjustment of all the body's systems to keep physiological functions in a state of equilibrium.
As the body ages, it takes longer for these adjustments to occur, so it becomes harder for older bodies to adapt to stress.
Nutrition and exercise underlie health at every age
The sex drive is powerful, infertility is rare, orgasm is frequent, and birth is easy, with fewer complications
in the early 20s than at any other time.
With frequent intercourse and without contraception, the average woman in her early 20s
becomes pregnant within three months
Globalization, advanced technology, and modern medicine have combined to produce
effective contraception, available in almost every nation.
As fewer infants die, people no longer need to begin childbearing before age 20 or to have four or more children
simply to ensure that some of their children will survive.
The number of births per woman that would be required to maintain a nation's (or the world's) population with no increases or decreases.
Birth rates have
declined the world over, with developing as well as developed nations recording lower fertility rates.
Advances in contraception have not only reduced the birth rate
they have also increased the rate of sexual activity, especially among unmarried adults.
Globally, emerging adults have fewer babies
but engage in more sexual activity than older adults (married or not) do or than people their own age once did.
Half of all emerging adults in the United States have had at least one
sexually transmitted infection (STI).
Emerging adulthood is marked by a greater willingness to take risks of all sorts
not just sexual ones.
Occupations, recreational activities, or other ventures that involve a degree of risk or danger
Forms of recreation that include apparent risk of injury or death and that are attractive and thrilling as a result
The ingestion of a drug to the extent that it impairs the user's biological or psychological well-being.
A condition of drug dependence in which the absence of the given drug from the individual's system produces a drive—physiological, biological, or both—to ingest more of the drug.
In the United States, between the ages of 15 and 25,
almost 1 male in every 100 dies violently, through suicide, homicide, or a motor-vehicle accident.
About 4 times as many young men as young women
commit suicide or die in motor-vehicle accidents, and 6 times as many are murdered
social norms approach
A method of reducing risky behavior among emerging adults that is based on their desire to follow social norms.
This approach publicizes survey results to make emerging adults aware of the actual prevalence of various behaviors within their peer group.
-Self-protective (high in self-involvement, low in self-doubt)
-Dysregulated (fragmented, overwhelmed by emotions or problems)
-Complex (valuing openness and independence above all)
-Integrated (able to regulate emotions and logic)
No one under age 20 had reached the advanced "integrated" stage, but some adults of every age had.
The largest shift in self-description toward higher levels occurred between adolescence and emerging adulthood.
The fear that someone else will judge one's appearance or behavior negatively and thereby confirm that person's prejudiced attitudes.
The mere possibility of being negatively stereotyped
arouses anxiety that can disrupt cognition and distort emotional regulation.
makes people of all ages doubt their ability, which reduces learning if their anxiety interferes with cognition.
Most contemporary students attend college
primarily to secure their vocational and financial future.
College also correlates with better health
College graduates everywhere smoke less, eat better, exercise more, and live longer.
tertiary education improves
verbal and quantitative abilities, knowledge of specific subject areas, skills in various professions, reasoning, and reflection.
Dealing with transitions successfully
especially leaving home, achieving identity, attending and then graduating from college, and securing a full-time job—correlates with well-being.
Worldwide, adults are more likely to have an episode of mental illness during emerging adulthood than during any later time.
The view that psychological disorders, are produced by the interaction of a genetic vulnerability (the diathesis) and stressful environmental factors and life events.
Each particular psychopathology becomes more common at certain ages than at others.
substance use disorders, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and schizophrenia
more likely to appear in emerging adulthood.
Erikson believed that, at each stage, the outcome of earlier crises
provides the foundation of each new era.
Ethnic identity may affect choices
in language, manners, romance, employment, neighborhood, religion, clothing, and values.
Erikson's sixth psychosocial stage, intimacy versus isolation, particularly emphasizes that humans are social creatures.
Intimacy progresses from attraction to close connection to ongoing commitment.
Marriage and parenthood, as emerging adults are discovering, are only two of several paths to intimacy.
Throughout life, friends defend against stress and provide joy.
Friends, new and old, are particularly crucial during emerging adulthood.
Most single young adults have larger and more supportive friendship networks than newly married young adults once did.
Robert Sternberg (1988) described three distinct aspects of love:
Passion- an intense physical, cognitive and emotional onslaught characterized by excitement, ecstasy, and euphoria.
Intimacy- knowing someone well, sharing secrets as well as sex.
Commitment- grows gradually through decisions to be together, mutual care giving, kept secrets, shared possessions, and forgiveness.
To live with an unrelated person—typically a romantic partner—to whom one is not married.
Most young adults in the United States, England, and northern Europe cohabit rather than marry before age 25.
Divorce is common(ending 45 percent of U.S. marriages) and difficult
not only for the partners but also for their families—their parents as well as their children.
Domestic violence and excessive drinking
more likely to occur among young adults who cohabit than among those who marry.
Fewer emerging adults today have established their own families
secured high-paying jobs, or achieved a definitive understanding of their identity and goals.
A gradual physical decline that is related to aging and during which the body becomes less strong and efficient
By age 60
All faces are wrinkled
-Hair turns gray and gets thinner
-"Middle-age spread" appears
A loss of hearing that is associated with senescence and that usually does not become apparent until after age 60
When couples in their 40s try to conceive,
about half are infertile and the other half risk various complications
Multiple factors (e.g. advanced age, fever, radiation, prescription drugs, stress, environmental toxins, drug abuse, alcoholism, cigarette smoking) can reduce sperm number, shape, and motility
Affected by anything that impairs physical functioning (e.g. advanced age, diseases, smoking, extreme dieting, obesity)
Pelvic inflammatory disease
can block a woman's fallopian tubes, preventing the sperm from reaching an ovum
Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)
Advances in medicine have solved about half of all fertility problems.
ART overcomes obstacles such as a low sperm count and blocked fallopian tubes.
In vitro fertilization (IVF)
A technique in which ova (egg cells) are surgically removed from a woman and fertilized with sperm in a laboratory. After the original fertilized cells (the zygotes) have divided several times, they are inserted into the woman's uterus
-one year after a woman's last menstrual period.
-time in middle age (around 50) when a woman's menstrual periods ends and the production of estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone drops considerably
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
-Treatment to compensate for hormone reduction at menopause or following surgical removal of the ovaries.
-minimizes menopausal symptoms and diminishes the risk of osteoporosis (involves estrogen and progesterone)
-may have health risks
Andropause (male menopause)
-drop in testosterone levels in older men
-results in a reduction in sexual desire, erections, and muscle mass.
-Effectiveness of HRT are questionable.
Variations among nations, cohorts, and the sexes indicate that smoking
is affected by social norms, laws, and advertising.
Drinking in moderation
Alcohol reduces coronary heart disease and strokes.
Increases "good" cholesterol and reduces "bad" cholesterol.
Lowers blood pressure.
Binge drinking signals a problem:
About 20% of U.S. adults had five or more drinks on a single occasion in the past year.
The connection between exercise and health is causal:
People who are more fit are likely to resist disease and to feel healthier as they age.
Communities and exercise
Adults exercise more in neighborhoods with walking and biking paths, ample fields and parks, and subsidized pools and gyms.
rate of diseases of all kinds—physical and emotional, acute (sudden), chronic (ongoing), and fatal—in a given population
Long-term difficulty in performing normal activities of daily life because of some physical, emotional, or mental condition
A measure of health that refers to how healthy and energetic—physically, emotionally, and socially—an individual actually feels
Gender difference might be biological (protective second X chromosome or extra estrogen) - why women live longer
or cultural (women tend to have more friends and take better care of themselves)
Women may suffer more on other measures of health:
Both sexes notice superficial signs of aging in women more than in men.
Women have higher rates of depression than men.
Women have higher rates of morbidity for every. chronic disease except heart disease in middle age
Women are more often disabled.
Why well educated, finally secure adults live longer:
Education teaches healthy habits.
Education leads to higher income, which allows better housing and medical care.
Education may be a marker for intelligence, which is a protective factor
Reactions take longer and complex memory tasks become impossible
because of age-related brain changes.
with age multitasking becomes
more difficult with every passing decade (e.g. driving while talking on a cell phone)
With age Distractions (e.g. noisy conversations, emotional stress) become
become more difficult to ignore.
Several lifestyle factors make brain loss more common
1.Drug abuse: Alcohol, cigarettes, and psychoactive drugs (including prescription pain relievers) can severely damage the brain
2.Excessive stress: May lead to depression, an overactive immune system, and harm to the brain
3.Poor circulation: Everything that protects the circulatory system (e.g. exercise, a healthy diet, and low blood pressure) also protects the brain.
4.Viruses: Some viruses and infections cross the blood-brain barrier and harm the brain (e.g. HIV and the prion that causes mad cow disease).
General intelligence (g)
A construct based on the idea that intelligence is one basic trait that involves all cognitive abilities, which people possess in varying amounts.
General intelligence (g) cannot be measured directly
be inferred from various abilities (e.g. vocabulary, memory, and reasoning).
Many scientists are trying to find one common factor or aspect of health that underlies IQ
genes, early brain development
U.S. Army: Tested the aptitude of all literate draftees during World War I.
Intellectual ability peaked at about age 18, stayed at that level until the mid-20s, and then began to decline
Classic study of 1,191 individuals, aged 10 to 60, from 19 New England villages.
IQ scores peaked between ages 18 and 21 and then gradually fell, with the average 55-year-old scoring the same as the average 14-year old.
Longitudinal data found many intellectual gains through adulthood
but younger cohorts often better than older cohorts.
-Probably due to changes in the environment (more education, improved nutrition, smaller family size, fewer infections) and NOT changes in innate intelligence!
Longitudinal research is better than cross-sectional research
but also has problems (e.g. practice effects, high attrition rates)
Seattle Longitudinal Study:
Cross-sequential study of adult intelligence
Schaie began this study in 1956; the most recent testing was conducted in 2005.
500 adults, aged 20 to 50, were tested on five primary mental abilities.
New cohort was added and followed every 7 years.
Measures in the Seattle Longitudinal Study
verbal meaning (comprehension)
word fluency (rapid associations)
Findings in the Seattle Longitudinal Study
People improve in most mental abilities during adulthood and decline occurs later in life.
Each particular ability has a distinct pattern for each gender.
Those types of basic intelligence that make learning of all sorts quick and thorough. Abilities such as working memory, abstract thought, and speed of thinking are usually considered aspects of fluid intelligence
Those types of intellectual ability that reflect accumulated learning. Vocabulary and general information are examples.
Valuable in high school and college, as students are expected to remember and analyze various ideas.
Nine Clusters Intelligence:
Cultural Variations (Gardner)
Linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, naturalistic, social understanding (interpersonal intelligence), self-understanding (intrapersonal intelligence), and existential intelligence
Nine Clusters: Cultural Variations (Gardner)
Each culture stresses a different set of Gardner's nine types of intelligence.
Everyone has all nine to some extent, but each person develops only some of them.
Selective Optimization with Compensation
Theory that people try to maintain a balance in their lives by looking for the best way to compensate for physical and cognitive losses and to become more proficient in activities they can already do well (Paul and Margaret Baltes, 1990).
Someone who is notably more skilled and knowledgeable than the average person about whichever activities are personally meaningful.
-Culture and context guide expertise.
-Experts are more skilled, proficient, and knowledgeable at a particular task than the average person, especially a novice (literally, "a new person") who has not practiced that skill.
-Experts do not necessarily have extraordinary intellectual ability.
Expertise is intuitive
Experts rely on their past experiences and on immediate contexts; their actions are more intuitive and less stereotypic.
Novices follow formal procedures and rules.
Expertise is automatic
Experts process incoming information more quickly and analyze it more efficiently than non-experts; then they act in well-rehearsed ways that appear unconscious.
Expertise is strategic
Experts have more and better strategies, especially when problems are unexpected.
Expertise is flexible
Experts are creative and curious, deliberately experimenting and enjoying the challenge when things do not go according to plan.
-Three of his stages cover the years after adolescence
-stages and ages do not occur in lockstep
described five stages, which occur in sequence.
Movement occurs when people have satisfied their needs at one level and are ready for the next step.
The Social Clock
developmental timetable based not on biological maturation but on social norms, which set the stages of life and the behaviors considered appropriate to each of them
Some ages set by the social clock are enacted into law,
minimal ages for driving, drinking, voting, getting married, signing a mortgage, and being entitled to retirement benefits.
genes do not change from conception through death
so it is not surprising that every study finds substantial continuity in personality.
The Big Five
correlate with almost every aspect of adulthood.
Adults select vocations, mates, and neighborhoods
and they settle into chosen routines and surroundings.
women higher in
in conscientiousness and agreeableness.
-These sex differences may be innate, perhaps related to hormones.
A tendency for men and women to become more similar as they move through middle age.
Intimacy needs are lifelong.
Adults meet their need for social connection through their relationships with relatives, friends, coworkers, and romantic partners.
Collectively, the family members, friends, acquaintances, and even strangers who move through life with an individual.
are typically the most crucial members of the social convoy
often able to provide practical help and useful advice when serious problems—death of a family member, personal illness, loss of a job—arise.
relationships between parents and adult children
are more likely to deteriorate if they live together
Over the years of adulthood, parents and adult children
increase in closeness, forgiveness, and pride as both generations gain maturity.
The belief that family members should support one another, sacrificing individual freedom and success, if necessary, in order to preserve family unity.
Adult siblings also often become
mutually supportive in adulthood.
-help one another cope with children, marriage, and elderly relatives
-likely to develop during adulthood among children who grew up in large families with major stressors like extreme poverty or a bitter divorce.
the time when parents are alone again after their children have moved out and launched their own lives) often improves a relationship
Most long-married people stay together because they love and trust each other, not simply because they are stuck.
those in merely distant marriages (most U.S. divorces) after divorce
are less happy than they thought they would be
Income, family welfare, and self esteem are lower among the formerly married
than among people of the same age who are still married or who have always been single.
According to Erikson, after the stage of intimacy versus isolation
comes generativity versus stagnation, when adults seek to be productive in a caring way.
Adults satisfy their need to be generative in many ways,
including creativity, caregiving, and employment.
Some caregiving involves meeting another person's physical needs—feeding, cleaning, and so on
but much of it has to do with fulfilling another person's psychological needs.
Just when an adult thinks he or she has mastered the art of parenting,
the child advances to the next stage and the adult is required to make major adjustments
Many adopted or foster children
remain attached to their birth parents, part of the normal human affection for familiar caregivers.
If children are not attached to anyone (as can happen when they spend years in an institution)
they are mistrustful of all adults and fearful of becoming too dependent.
The average age of new stepchildren is 9 years
which means that usually they are strongly connected to their biological parents.
-This helps the child but hinders the stepparents.
often get hurt, sick, lost, or disruptive, and teenage stepchildren may get pregnant, drunk, or arrested.
-authoritative parenting, is needed.
Adoptive parents have several advantages:
-they are legally connected to their children
-the biological parents are usually absent, and they desperately wanted the child.
-Strong bonds can develop, especially when the children are adopted as infants
Siblings' relationships can be strained if
a parent becomes frail and needs care.
One sibling usually becomes the chief caregiver.
The generation of middle-aged people who are supposedly "squeezed" by the needs of the younger and older members of their families.
Unemployment is associated with
higher rates of child abuse, alcoholism, depression, and many other social problems.
Even though average income has doubled,
overall happiness within the United States has not risen in the past 50 years.
The idea that people compare themselves to others in their group and are satisfied if they are no worse off than the group norm.
Work meets generativity needs by allowing people to do the following:
Develop and use their personal skills
Express their creative energy
Aid and advise coworkers, as a mentor or friend
Support the education and health of their families
Contribute to the community by providing goods or services
extrinsic rewards of work
The tangible benefits, usually in the form of compensation (e.g., salary, health insurance, pension), that one receives for doing a job.
intrinsic rewards of work
The intangible gratifications (e.g., job satisfaction, self-esteem, pride) that come from within oneself as a result of doing a job.
One recent change in the labor market that impedes generativity
is an increased frequency of hiring and firing.
Another recent change in employment patterns
work schedules beyond the traditional 9-to-5, Monday-through-Friday.
An arrangement in which work schedules are flexible so that employees can balance personal and occupational responsibilities.
About one-third of all working couples who have young children and nonstandard schedules
save on child care by having one parent at home while the other is at work.
Physiological reactions take a toll
and past stressors make it more likely that a new stressor will have an impact.
A strategy often used by younger adults to deal with stress in which they tackle a stressful issue directly.
A strategy often used by older adults to deal with stress in which they change their feelings about the stressor rather than changing the stressor itself.
At adolescence, the gonads increase the production of sex hormones: ___________ in girls and __________ in boys.
Which of the following sexually transmitted infections is a sexually active teenager most likely to have?
Which statement concerning a teenager's brain growth is true?
The limbic system matures before the prefrontal cortex does
Why do emotions rule behavior for many teens?
The onset of puberty is earlier.
The amygdala matures before the prefrontal cortex does.
The complexities of emotional restraint are beyond them
What is adolescent egocentrism?
The thinking that leads young people to focus on themselves to the exclusion of others.
Teens are likely to experiment with drugs and have unprotected sex because of:
the invincibility fable.
Julie is obsessed with how others will react to her behavior and appearance. It takes her several hours to dress in the morning as she considers what both her friends and her enemies will think of her. Julie's behavior reflects the power of:
the imaginary audience.
Which of the following statements about hypothetical-deductive thought is true?
Hypothetical-deductive thought allows one to consider propositions that may or may not reflect reality.
Since the U.S. trend toward more high-stakes testing began:
other nations have moved away from relying on high-stakes testing.
What are some ways of encouraging adolescents to engage in their education?
Keep high schools small.
Encourage extracurricular activities.
Change the schedule and cluster students.
Researchers believe that hormones and environmental chemicals in the food supply:
have led to both weight gain and early maturation.
Which of the following is a symptom of anorexia nervosa as defined by the American Psychiatric Association?
A refusal to maintain a body weight that is at least 85 percent of normal for age and height.
During adolescence, the lungs will _________ in weight and the heart will ___________ in size.
Teenage girls are more susceptible to sexually transmitted infections than mature women are because:
fully developed women have some natural biological defenses against STIs.
What function does the prefrontal cortex serve?
It is responsible for planning ahead and emotional regulation
According to the text, what explains why many teenagers are thrill seekers?
The prefrontal cortex is not yet mature.
Which characteristic of adolescent thought is demonstrated when a teen fails to recognize that others may neither care about nor share her opinions?
Which of the following best explains why teens engage in behavior that they know puts them at risk?
the invincibility fable
Concluding that a four-legged furry animal that wags its tail when it is happy and that likes to fetch sticks is a dog would be an example of:
Many middle school students sacrifice ______________ rather than risk social exclusion.
High-stakes testing as a requirement for high school graduation potentially results in:
Most recent Internet studies have demonstrated that adolescents' online communication _________ social connectedness and/or well-being.
During adolescence, psychosocial development is primarily a search to answer the question:
"Who am I?"
During the fifth stage of psychosocial development, an adolescent who is confused as to which of the many possible roles to adopt is said to be:
experiencing a crisis of identity versus role confusion.
It is typical for an adolescent experiencing __________ to sleep too much, care little about school, and be indifferent to parental criticism.
In achieving full identity, an adolescent should understand his or her goals and values regarding:
religion and sex.
politics and ethnicity.
What is a gender role?
A pattern of behavior that the culture of society considers appropriate for only men or only women.
Today, vocational identity is postponed because:
many vocations require specialized skills that take years to attain.
A key developmental asset that predicts positive youth outcomes is having:
supportive non-parent adult relationships.
Adolescents are said to have closeness with family when:
there is open communication, support, emotional connectedness, and parental control.
Applied to adolescent peer relationships, "facilitation" refers to the way that peers:
encourage each other to do things that none would do on his or her own.
A factor that pushes immigrant teens toward extremes of either obedience or rebellion is:
if their parents seek to maintain traditional practices that differ markedly from those of teenage culture.
According to Dunphy, the third event in the sequence of male-female relationships is:
small mixed-sex groups.
Which of the following statements concerning homosexual youth is TRUE?
Ten percent of heterosexual adults report having had same-sex encounters when they were an adolescent.
The best sex-education programs are those that:
start before high school, require parent-child communication, focus on behavior, and last for years.
Which of the following statements is TRUE concerning adolescent suicide?
Suicidal ideation is common among adolescents, but completed suicides are not.
Most longitudinal studies on adolescent destructiveness conclude that:
increased anger at puberty is normal and is usually expressed in acceptable ways.
Which psychoactive drug used during adolescence inhibits growth and may result in the adolescent becoming a shorter and heavier adult?
Adolescents who regularly smoke marijuana are more likely to:
drop out of school.
become teenage parents.
Understanding oneself based on past experiences and future plans is called ________, and lack of commitment to any goals or values is called __________.
identity achievement; role confusion
Which type of identity does society expect some debate and questioning during late adolescence?
______ refers to a person's self-definition as male or female and _______ refers to a person's erotic desires.
Gender identity; sexual orientation
Research suggests that:
working 20 or more hours while attending high school impedes identity formation.
Parent and adolescent conflicts:
occur when a child's drive for independence clashes with the parents' supervision and control.
Mr. Sanchez gives the car keys to his son and asks, "Who are you going with to the movies and what time will you be home?" This questioning is an example of:
Which immigrant youth seem to experience more discrimination from other adolescents and to suffer from lower self-esteem than other immigrant groups do?
Many homosexual men report that they became aware of their sexual orientation at about age _____ but told no one until about age _____.
As reported in 2007, the current sexual behavior of American teens is that:
half of all teens had sexual intercourse by age 16, which is later than a decade ago.
Two causes of depression in adolescence are:
genetic vulnerability and a depressed mother when the adolescent was an infant.
Thinking about suicide is called _________, and a failed suicide is called __________
suicidal ideation; parasuicide
Early neurological impairments increase the risk of a child becoming a(n) _________, and a teen experiencing a negative psychosocial development is at greater risk of becoming a(n) ___________.
life-course-persistent offender; adolescent-limited offender
The text indicates that globalization, technology, and medicine has
resulted in a delay in the assumption of adult roles.
According to the text, the term used to describe a person between the ages of 18 and 25 is a(n):
Approximately what percentage of young adults in the United States rate their health as good, very good, or excellent?
The number of births per woman that would be required to maintain the world's population is a replacement rate of:
In the United States, what percentage of people in their mid-20s believe that premarital sex "is not wrong at all"?
The category of self-description that is fragmented and overwhelmed by emotions or problems is called:
Research on personality reveals that it is:
not fixed; plasticity is evident.
Worldwide, adults are more likely to have a mental illness during emerging adulthood years because:
interpersonal or financial stress interacts with a preexisting vulnerability.
Worldwide, emerging adults think about their identities in terms of:
political loyalties and religious commitments.
ethnic and vocational identities.
During this stage, Erikson believed that adults seek someone with whom to share their lives in an enduring and self-sacrificing commitment.
intimacy versus isolation
According to the text, by age ____, the immune system can fight off just about everything from the sniffles to cancer.
Young adults can rapidly adjust to any stress and bounce back quickly after running a marathon or missing sleep. ________ is quick and efficient during young adulthood
The replacement rate:
is the average number of births per woman required to maintain the world's population.
Forms of recreation that include apparent risk or injury or death that are attractive and thrilling as a result are referred to as:
The kind of thinking that involves considering things in relation to each other is called:
According to research by Labouvie-Vief (2006), no one under the age of 20 was in the advanced _________ stage of self-description.
College trends indicate that:
more girls than boys plan on a professional career (e.g., law and medicine)
Personality patterns of adults are affected by:
norms of their culture.
Anxiety is a normal part of emerging adulthood. However, anxiety can become a disorder as a result of:
age and genetic vulnerability.
Which disorder is characterized by having irrational thoughts, delusions, and hallucinations?
The fifth of Erik Erikson's eight stages of development (identity versus role confusion) starts in adolescence; but unlike the past, it is completed:
later during adulthood.
A commonality among intimate relationships is that they:
progress from attraction to close connection to ongoing commitment.
What term refers to the number of deaths each year per 1,000 members of a particular population?
Which of the following is NOT a reason that, at age 80, women outnumber men two to one?
a. Women's biology protects them until their childbearing years are over.
b. More women seek help.
c. Men avoid anything that could be construed as weakness.
d. Old men die at a higher rate than do old women.
d. Old men die at a higher rate than do old women.
How did Spearman measure general intelligence (g)?
He inferred g from tests of various abilities, such as vocabulary, memory, and reasoning.
What were the primary mental abilities studied by Schaie?
verbal meaning, word fluency, number ability, inductive reasoning, spatial orientation
Which of the following statements about IQ is true?
In adulthood, chronological age, culture, context, and personal choices are all equally influential in determining IQ.
In which of Erikson's stages do adults seek a reciprocal connection with another human being?
intimacy vs. isolation
The idea that stages of life and the behaviors accompanying them are set by social standards represents:
the social clock.
A midlife crisis could be defined as a:
period of unusual anxiety
time for radical reexamination
Extensive research on personality supports the general belief that:
there are five basic clusters of personality traits.
James, a computer salesman, coaches youth soccer, coordinates a Neighborhood Watch group, and cycles with his bike club. His personality clusters high in:
Gilbert found that personality trumps experience. People who win a million dollars are overjoyed and:
revert to their previous level of happiness.
In the U.S., The Big Five scores differ in states. New Yorkers are highest in __________ while North Dakotans are highest in ___________.
International research indicates that married people have:
slightly higher levels of happiness than single persons have.
When comparing homosexual partners with heterosexual partners, research indicates that:
both types of relationships experience the same types of advantages and disadvantages.
Dr. Sullivan, a 79-year-old psychology professor, has been teaching at a college for more than 40 years. He vows that he is not ready to retire and that he loves teaching and helping prepare young adults for their careers. He is demonstrating:
generativity through employment.
Of the following family members, who is most likely the family kinkeeper?
Gloria, age 33, who is married with two children and frequently calls her siblings and regularly plans holiday family events
Which parenting relationship has difficulty in developing strong attachment bonds with children?
The idea that people compare themselves to others in their group and are satisfied if they are no worse off is:
Anthony values most receiving a good salary and benefits at his job while Henry values most his workmanship pride and employee relationships. Most likely, Anthony is ______; and Henry is _________
In which of Erikson's stages do adults feel the need to mentor and help younger people?
generativity vs. stagnation
According to Maslow, people who do not receive ___________ cannot move on to __________.
Martha, a jail guard, is critical of everyone and does not like to travel because of anxiety. She most likely fits into which personality cluster?
Studies of personality stability show that:
pathological traits are likely to be less extreme as people grow older.
Developmental research on gender differences suggest that:
past sex differences were cultural, not innate.
The belief that family members should care for each other, sacrificing personal freedom and success to do so, is called:
Generally speaking, married people are a little happier than unmarried ones. However, the largest difference was found in __________ where more married than single adults were "very happy."
the United States
In the United States, the number of declared homosexual couples:
has increased probably because of homosexuals' willingness to declare themselves in official U.S. statistics
Divorce is most likely to occur within the first ______ years of marriage and _____ are more likely to remarry.
five; young men
Parenthood is characterized by
the adults being dependent on a child to meet their generativity needs.
the child being dependent on the adults to meet their needs.
the adult passing along their values.
What are the advantages adoptive parents have?
The biological parents are usually absent.
They are legally connected to their children.
They desperately wanted a child.
_________ rewards of work are tangible rewards, such as salary, and _______ rewards of work are intangible rewards, such as job satisfaction.