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History 201 Final (STEPHAN)
Terms in this set (70)
Second Party System (Democrats & Wigs)
-Age of Jackson
- Existing in the United States from about 1828 to 1854, after the First Party System.
- The major parties were the Democratic Party, Led by Andrew Jackson, and the Whig Party, assembled by Henry Clay from the National Republicans and Other opponents of Jackson.
-Reflected and shaped the political, social, economic and cultural currents of the Jacksonian Era, until succeeded by the Third Party System.
Slaves considered "living property" or "personal property".
"Slave Power Conspiracy"
-Be concerned of our government and how violence is not the answer.
-Was the idea that southern slave owners controlled the federal government and were using its power as a means to expand and protect slavery.
-A ruling group of slaveholders or advocates of slavery, as in the southern United States before 1865.
-The persons or interest representing slavery politically, or using political power for the preservation or advancement of slavery.
-Positive good vs. Necessary Evil
-Thomas Dew defends Slavery (1832)
-Religion: Slave owners will turn to religion and say it says nowhere in the bible that slavery is bad or a sin. "it is actually good".
-Master: slave relations
-Slavery and Republican government: ancient times had slavery and no where says its bad
-Work conducted free from constraint and in accordance with the laborers personal inclinations and will.
-prior to the civil war, it became an ideal support by Republicans (mostly N'ers) to articulate individuals rights to work how and where they wished and to accumulate property in their own name. The ideal of this was to lay at the heart of the North's argument that slavery should not be extended into western territories.
-Favored government support for economic development and controls over individual morality; indifferent to westward expansion.
-Plenty of land, so why risk war to take land when they have plenty to work with already.
Know Nothings (american party)
-Promised to purify American Policies by limiting or ending the influence of Irish Catholics and other immigrants, thus reflecting nativism and anti-catholic sentiment.
-It strove to curb immigration and naturalism, but met with little . Largely middle-class membership fragmented over the issue of slavery.
-Pro-slavery activists from the slave state of Missouri, who crossed the state border into Kansas territory,t o force the acceptance of slavery there.
-The name was applied by Free-State settlers in Kansas and abolitionists throughout the North.
-They interfered in territorial elections, and attacked Free-State settlements. This violence was the origin of the phrase "Bleeding Kansas". They contributed to the growing sectional tensions, and helped bring on the American Civil War
Emigrant Aid Society
· Sprang up to promote settlement from free states to slave states
· Abolitionists in the northeastern states became determined to keep Kansas from becoming a slave state. They organized _______ companies to encourage antislavery supporters to move to Kansas.
· Abolitionist Eli Thayer's effort to move 1000+ antislavery families to KS
· The second constitution drafted for Kansas Territory, was written by proslavery supporters. The document permitted slavery, excluded free blacks from living in Kansas, and allowed only male citizens of the United States to vote. There were three separate votes on this; In the final vote, residents of Kansas Territory rejected it.
-African Americas are inferior, immigration is illegal for free blacks
-A radical movement to increase slave rebellion and over throw the South's racial and economic system.
· North: Winfield Scott
· Defend DC, Navel blockade of South, Slow advance to Richmond
o Enough men? A long time to gather them. Have a navy but it's a lot to block
Minié ball/ rifling
· 300 yard kill range
· made out of lead typically very heavy
· four exterior grease-filled grooves and a conical hollow in its base
· design was made to allow rapid muzzle loading of rifles
Napoleonic model of warfare
· Massing fire power: muskets aren't very accurate- fire together
· Frontal assault with goal of breaching defense line
· Denied that the form of slavery practiced in the South was brutal and exploitative, unfair, unequal
· The idea that the government is subject to the will of the people. Before the civil war, this was the idea that the residents of a territory should determine, through their legislatures, whether to allow slavery.
o In KS & NE
§ Strengths: referendum that moves policy debate of congress
§ Weaknesses: mechanics of referendum
o Quiz question: Looking at the 1860 presidential election which concept best describes Ab Lincoln's values?
§ Popular sovereignty
· A term coined by journalist John O'Sullivan in 1845 to express the popular 19th century belief the U.S was destined to expand westward to the Pacific Ocean and had an unquestionable right and God-given responsibility to do so. This idea provided an ideological shield for westward expansion and masked the economic and political motivations of many of those who championed it.
· The idea advanced in the 1840's that congress should ban slavery within the western territories. "Free soil, free speech, free labor, free men"
The party leadership consisted of former anti-slavery members of the Whig Party and the Democratic Party. Its main purpose was opposing the expansion of slavery into the western territories, arguing that free men on _____ comprised a morally and economically superior system to slavery
1.Vicksburg Sig.: political and economic
-able to shift resources like food and men across river (problem for Union); important political and economic target
2. Grants Challenge
-Gen. U.S Grant v. John Pemberton (CSA); 25,000 men under him; takes him over 6 months to get Vicksburg
3. Collapse of Morale
-Union bombardment; Hunger and hoarding
4. Pemberton surrenders
· required enlistment for state service, typically into the armed forces.
· The Confederacy passed its first of 3 ____ acts 16 April 1862, and scarcely a year later the Union did the same.
Substitutes and Commutation fees
· Exemptions from the draft could be bought for $300 or by finding a ____ draftee.
· This clause led to bloody draft riots in New York City, where protesters were outraged that exemptions were effectively granted only to the wealthiest U.S. citizens.
"20 Negro Exemption"
Exempted an owner or overseer of twenty or more slaves from service in the war
o "A rich man's war but a poor man's fight"
· Embraced name even though it was not a nice term (danger)
· Were a vocal group of Democrats located in the Northern United States of the Union who opposed the American Civil War, wanting an immediate peace settlement with the Confederates.
· They comprised the more extreme wing of the "Peace Democrats"
-Requires a person under arrest to be brought before a judge or into court.
-Ensure that a prisoner can be released from unlawful detention- that is, detention lacking sufficient cause or evidence.
· a fiat currency issued during the American Civil War
· an American political party that was active between 1874 and 1884 which advocated non-gold-backed government currency, also known as the _______ Labor Party
Contraband of War
· blacks can fight for Union even if runaway slaves
· determined that the US would not return escaped slaves who went to Union lines and classified them as ______. They used many laborers to support Union efforts and soon began to pay them wages.
· winning the war hinged on taking slave labor from CSA- no moral evaluations
· dealing with things sensibly and realistically in a way that is based on practical rather than theoretical considerations.
· Evolution of union policies
· 4 million
· While there was no initial plan for addressing the specific needs of the slave population, Union generals quickly recognized their impoverishment and suffering, and sought to provide education and material support both for civilians and for former slaves who enlisted with Union forces.
Lincoln's 10% Plan
-When ___ of eligible voters took loyalty oath they could set up government, provided they outlaw slavery
-All southerners except for high-ranking CSA officers and government officials would be granted a full pardon. Lincoln guaranteed s'ers that he would protect their private property, though not their slaves.
-meant to shorten the war by offering a moderate peace plan, also intended to further his emancipation policy by insisting that the new governments abolished slavery
Johnson's "plan of restoration"
· Restore rights to most southerners (individuals can appeal for pardons if above rank of colonel or having > $20,000 property)
· State constitutional conventions (nullify secession and renounce CSA debts)
Ratify 13th amendment
· South pretty much recreated slavery, very strict on what blacks can and cannot do
· 9 confederate congressmen, 4 generals, 4 colonels, 7 confederate state officials and VP of the CSA (Alexander Stephens)
· Wade Hampton
Ku Klux Klan
-white supremacy, white nationalism, and anti-immigration, expressed through terrorism
-1st flourished in the Southern United States in the late 1860s, then died out by the early 1870s.
-white costumes: robes, masks, and conical hats, designed to be outlandish and terrifying, and to hide their identities
-2nd flourished nationwide,while introducing cross burnings.
-3rd emerged after World War II
-Term for runty horses and low-down, good-for-nothing rascals
· men so poor that they could stuff all their earthly belongings in a single suitcase swoop southward like buzzards to "fatten our misfortunes"
-Were opposed during the war by moderates and conservative factions led by Abraham Lincoln and after the war by "conservatives" (S) and "liberals" (N)
-Strongly opposed slavery during the war and after the war distrusted ex-Confederates, demanding harsh policies for the former rebels, and emphasizing civil rights and voting rights for freedmen (recently freed slaves)
-Wanted assurance that slavery and treason were dead
Tariff of Abomination
-Passed by the Congress, designed to protect industry in the northern United States.
-Which were being driven out of business by low-priced imported goods by putting a tax on them.
-S, however, was harmed directly by having to pay higher prices on goods the region did not produce, and indirectly because reducing the exportation of British goods to the US made it difficult for the British to pay for the cotton they imported from the South
· refers to the political struggle that developed over the issue of re-chartering the Second Bank of the United States (BUS) during the Andrew Jackson administration
Indian Removal Act
-was a law by President Andrew Jackson, authorized him to negotiate with the Native Americans in the S'ern United States for their removal to federal territory west of the Mississippi River in exchange for their homelands
-strongly supported by non-native people of the S, who were eager to gain access to lands inhabited by the 5 Tribes. Christian missionaries, most notably Jeremiah Evarts, protested against its passage. Future U.S. President Abraham Lincoln also opposed
Nat Turner's Revolt
-slave rebellion that took place in Southampton County, Virginia. Rebel slaves killed anywhere from 55 to 65 people, the highest number of fatalities caused by any slave uprising in the American South.
-was put down within a few days, but the leader survived in hiding for over two months afterwards.
-there was widespread fear, and white militias organized in retaliation against slaves. The state executed 56 slaves accused of being part of the rebellion.
· is a rule that limits or forbids the raising, consideration or discussion of a particular topic by members of a legislative or decision-making body.
Independence of Texas
· was the formal declaration of independence of the Republic of Texas from Mexico in the Texas Revolution.
U.S. Mexican War
· It was a defining event for both nations, transforming a continent and forging a new identity for its peoples. By the war's end, _____ lost nearly half of its territory, the present American Southwest from Texas to California, and the _____ became a continental power.
· U.S. annexation of Texas, which Mexico considered part of its territory despite the 1836 Texas Revolution.
· one of the major events leading to the American Civil War, would have banned slavery in any territory to be acquired from Mexico in the Mexican War or in the future, including the area later known as the Mexican Cession, but which some proponents construed to also include the disputed lands in south Texas and New Mexico east of the Rio Grande
Compromise of 1850
was a package of five bills passed in the United States in September 1850, which defused a four-year confrontation between the slave states of the South and the free states of the North regarding the status of territories acquired during the Mexican-American War (1846-1848).
Uncle Tom's Cabin
· is an anti-slavery novel by American author Harriet Beecher Stowe. Published in 1852, the novel "helped lay the groundwork for the Civil War"
· Story with slave Eliza escaping with son over the ice river
· Mrs. Bird challenging husband about voting for slavery
-opening new lands for settlement, and had the effect of repealing the Missouri Compromise of 1820 by allowing white male settlers in those territories to determine if they would allow slavery within each territory.
-The initial purpose was to open up many new farms and make feasible a Midwestern Transcontinental Railroad. It became problematic when popular sovereignty was written into the proposal so that the voters of the moment would decide whether slavery would be allowed. Leading to CW
· is the principle that the authority of the government is created and sustained by the consent of its people, through their elected representatives (Rule by the People), who are the source of all political power.
· was a series of violent political confrontations involving anti-slavery Free-Staters and pro-slavery "Border Ruffian" elements, that took place in the ____ Territory and the neighboring towns of Missouri between 1854 and 1861.
· At the heart of the conflict was the question of whether ____ would enter the Union as a free state or slave state. This was a proxy war between Northerners and Southerners over the issue of slavery in the United States.
·-was abolitionist who fought for slave rights
-During the 1856 conflict in Kansas, he commanded forces at the Battle of Black Jack and the Battle of Osawatomie. His followers also killed five pro-slavery supporters at Pottawatomie. He led an unsuccessful raid on the federal armory at Harpers Ferry that ended with his capture. His trial resulted in his conviction and a sentence of death by hanging.
Caning of Charles Summer
-U.S Congress, Representative Preston Brooks attacked him with his walking cane in retaliation for a speech given by ____ two days earlier.
-The beating drew a sharply differentiated response from the American public in the context of the expansion of slavery in the United States, and it has been considered symbolic of the "breakdown of reasoned discourse" that eventually led to the American Civil War.
Dred Scott Decision
-first black who went to trial to sue for his freedom, his case was brought before the U.S Supreme Court.
-The court decided that all people of African ancestry, slaves as well as those who were free, could never become citizens of the U.S and therefore could not sue in federal court. He remained a slave.
-The decision greatly influenced the nomination of Ab and his succeeding election, which led to the S secession from the Union.
James Henry Hammond's "Cotton is King!" Speech
· He was considered one of the major spokesmen in favor of slavery in the years before the American Civil War.
· He popularized the phrase that ______ in an 1858 speech to the Senate. In his writings, he consistently compared the South's "well compensated" slaves to the North's "scantily compensated"
Fredrick Law Olmstead's Cotton Kingdom
-Published during Civil War
-He argued that slavery had made the slave states inefficient (a set amount of work took 4 times as long in Virginia as in the North) and backward both economically and socially.
-Slavery meant that 'the proportion of men improving their condition was much less than in any Northern community; and that the natural resources of the land were strangely unused, or were used with poor economy.'
· State sovereignty
o having a permanent population, a government, and the capacity to enter into relations with other sovereign states.
· Made Davis task of organizing a new nation and fighting a war difficult in the extreme
· 6 year term for Pres. And VP (1 term)
· no limits on slave holding
· create a more perfect union
· Doesn't want to expand. No new slave states/ territory
· Didn't appear on southern ballets
· Free labor ideology
o A set of beliefs and ideas that presented slavery as a threat to a white male economic independence
· it was passed by both houses of Congress in July 1861 in an attempt to define limited conservative goals for the Union effort during the Civil War, especially the restoration of the Union as it was with no mention of slavery
· the dual goal was to retain the loyalty of Unionists in the slave-holding border states and also to reassure Northerners who would fight to save the Union but not to free the slaves
-the shots which started the American Civil War
·-CSA batteries opened fire, firing for 34 hours
-CSA bombarded the fort from artillery batteries surrounding the harbor. Although the Union returned fire, they were significantly outgunned and, Major Anderson agreed to evacuate.
-After there was support from both N&S for further military action. Ab call volunteers to suppress the rebellion resulted in an additional four southern slave states also declaring their secession. The Civil War had begun.
·-Burnside,sent a forces to occupy the area of Falmouth. The rest of the army soon followed.
-Lee reacted by entrenching his army on the heights behind the town.
-Union laid five pontoon bridges across the Rappahannock under fire. Burnside mounted a series of useless frontal assaults on Prospect Hill and Marye's Heights that resulted in staggering casualties.
-Burnside called off the offensive and recrossed the river, ending the campaign.
Battle of Vicksburg
-Grant's armies converged on ____, investing the city and entrapping a Confederate army under Pemberton.
-With the loss of Pemberton's army and this vital stronghold on the Mississippi, the Confederacy was effectively split in half.
-Grant's successes in the West boosted his reputation, leading ultimately to his appointment as General-in-Chief of the Union armies.
Sherman's March through Georgia
· His forces destroyed military targets as well as industry, infrastructure, and civilian property and disrupted the South's economy and its transportation networks.
· His bold move of operating deep within enemy territory and without supply lines is considered to be revolutionary in the annals of war.
· Home off limits, rules are negated, open warfare, limit damage, runaway slaves fighting
· It was a major boost to higher education in America
· The grant was originally set up to establish institutions is each state that would educate people in agriculture, home economics, mechanical arts, and other professions that were practical at the time.
· He wanted to assure that education would be available to those in all social classes.
Richmond Bread Riots
· occurred in cities throughout the South, women and men violently invaded and looted various shops and stores.
· were triggered by the women's lack of money, provisions, and food
· broke into shops and began seizing clothing, shoes, food and even jewelry before the Militia arrived to restore order.
New York City Draft Riots
-culmination of working-class discontent with new laws passed by Congress that year to draft men to fight in the ongoing American Civil War
-primarily ethnic Irish, resenting particularly that wealthier men, who could afford to pay a $300 commutation fee to hire a substitute
·intended to express anger at the draft, the protests turned into a race riot, with white rioters, chiefly Irish immigrants, attacking blacks wherever they could be found. At least 100 black people were estimated to have been killed
·-Main goal to preserve the union- acting as commander and chief- freeing slaves where he has no control- military measure to change direction of war
-Says S never left the union- they are just under rebellion
-Take effect Jan. 1 1863-if quite before you can keep your slaves
-Slaves will be protected under military, now can enlist in the army, can work for fair wages, Freed slaves in states that were still under rebellion
Sherman's Special Orders #15
-provided for the confiscation of 400,000 acres of land along the Atlantic coast of SC, GA, FL and the dividing of it into 40-acre posts, on which were to be settled for freed slave families and other Blacks then living in the area.
-Were intended to address the immediate problem of dealing with the tens of thousands of black refugees who had joined Sherman's march in search of protection and sustenance, and "to assure the harmony of action in the area of operations"
Civil War Amendments (13-15)
· The Thirteenth Amendment ended slavery in the United States. The Fourteenth Amendment allowed Blacks to have the same rights as Whites. The Fifteenth Amendment allowed Blacks to vote. Although many people were against the amendments at first, the amendments were very helpful for the Civil Rights Movement.
Reconstruction Acts (1867)
· A key feature of the Acts included the creation of five military districts in the South, each commanded by a general, which would serve as the acting government for the region. National Archives, War Department Records, Second Military district
· as one of the most dramatic events in the political life of the United States during Reconstruction and the first ___ in history of a sitting United States president. It was the consummation of a lengthy political battle between the moderate Johnson and the "Radical Republican" movement that dominated Congress and sought control of Reconstruction policies.
· "high crimes and misdemeanors"
How does one become a target of the Klan? How would you describe the victims detailed here? What did the Klan do to them?
· African American leaders, Educators, public speakers, etc. Made them not vote, beat them, whipped them, threatened them with execution: hanging, shooting, etc.
Since this is a congressional investigation, what are the strengths and weaknesses?
· Strengths: lots of materials, eyewitness accounts, they were under oath
· Weaknesses: rumors, did not hear it themselves (second and third hand information passed through the masses)
How did political (Democrats/Republicans) and regional affiliations (North/South) shape the interpretation of the evidence heard during these trials?
· South: Tried to dismiss this, not as systematic as Republicans making them think the worst
o Bad policy
o Slaves renamed themselves to get away, would claim they would recognize their former owners by the voices or something like that.
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