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Chapter 13 - Psychology study guide


the unique and relatively stable ways in which people think, feel, and behave.


value judgments of a person's moral and theoretical behavior.


the enduring characteristics with which each person is born.

unconscious mind

level of the mind in which thoughts, feelings, memories, and other information are kept that are not easily or voluntarily brought into consciousness.


part of the personality present at birth and completely unconscious

pleasure principle

principle by which the id functions; the immediate satisfaction of needs without regard for the consequences.


part of the personality that develops out of a need to deal with reality, mostly conscious, rational, and logical.

reality principle

principle by which the ego functions; the satisfaction of the demands of the id only when negative consequences will not results.


part of the personality that acts as a moral center.


part of the superego that produces pride or guilt, depending on how acceptable behavior is.


disorder in which the person does not fully resolve the conflict in a particular psychosexual stage, resulting in personality traits and behavior associated with that earlier stage.

psychosexual stages: oral stage

first stage occurring in the first year of life in which the mouth is the erogenous zone and weaning is the primary conflict.

psychosexual stages: anal stage

second stage occurring from about 1 to 3 years of age, in which the anus is the erogenous zone and toilet training is the source of conflict.

anal expulsive personality

a person fixated in the anal stage who is messy, destructive, and hostile.

anal retentive personality

a person fixated in the anal stage who is neat, fussy, stingy and stubborn.

phallic stage

third stage occurring from about 3 to 6 years of age, in which the child discovers sexual feelings.

oedipus complex

situation occurring in the phallic stage in which a child develops a sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parent and jealousy of the same-sex parent.


fourth stage occurring during the school years, in which the sexual feelings of the child are repressed while the child develops in other ways.

collective unconscious

Jung's name for the memories shared by all members of the human species.


Jung's collective, universal human memories.

basic anxiety

anxiety created when a child is born into the bigger and more powerful world of older children and adults.

neurotic personalities

personalities typified by maladaptive ways of dealing with relationships in Horney's theory.

Carl Jung: famous for:

A Swiss psychoanalyst who eventually broke away from Freud's emphasis on the sexual content of the unconscious mind. He formed his own theory of analysis known as analytical psychology.

Karen Horney: famous for:

She took issues with Freud's emphasis on sexuality, especially the concept of penis envy. She emphasized the importance of feelings of basic anxiety in personality development during early childhood.

criticism of the psychodynamic perspective

No experiments to arrive at Freud's conclusions about personality. Theory based on his own observations of numerous patients.


In behaviorism, sets of well-learned responses that have become automatic.

social-cognitive learning theorists

theorists who emphasize the importance of both the influences of other people's behavior and of a person's own expectancies of learning.

social-cognitive view

learning theory that includes cognitive processes such as anticipating, judging, memory, and imitation of models.

reciprocal determinism

Bandura's explanation of how the factors of environment, personal characteristics, and behavior can interact to determine future behavior.


individual's expectancy of how effective his or her efforts to accomplish a goal will be in any particular circumstance.

locus of control: whose concept is it?

The tendency for people to assume that they either have control or do not have control over events and consequences in their lives. Julian Rotter's concept.

humanistic perspective

the "third force" in psychology that focuses on those aspects of personality that make people uniquely human, such as subjective feelings and freedom of choice.

real self

one's perception of actual characteristics, traits, and abilities.

ideal self

one's perceptive of whom one should be or would like to be.

positive regard

warmth, affection, love, and respect that come from significant others in one's life.

fully functioning person

a person who is in touch with and trusting of the deepest, innermost urges and feelings.

surface traits

aspects of personality that can easily be seen by other people in the outward actions of a person.

source traits

the more basic traits that underlie the surface traits, forming the core of personality.


dimension of personality in which people tend to withdraw from excessive stimulation.


degree of emotional instability or stability.

trait-situation interaction

the assumption that the particular circumstances of any given situation will influence the way in which a trait is expressed.

halo effect

tendency of an interviewer to allow positive characteristics of a client to influence the assessments of the client's behavior and statements.

projective tests

personality assessments that present ambiguous visual stimuli to the client and ask the client to respond with whatever comes to mind.

Rorschach inkblot test

projective test that uses 10 inkblots as the ambiguous situations as the visual stimuli.

Thematic Apperception Test

projective test that uses 20 pictures of people in ambiguous situations as the visual stimuli.

direct observation

assessment in which the professional observes the client engaged in ordinary, day-to-day behavior in either a clinical or natural setting.

rating scale

assessment in which a numerical value is assigned to specific behavior that is listed in the scale.

MMPI-2:what does it specifically test for?

abnormal behavior patterns in personality.

What are the advantages of Personality Inventories?

They are standardized.

What are the disadvantages of Personality Inventories?

people are able to fake answers and respond in what they feel are the socially appropriate ways. Also, some people may develop a habit of picking a particular answer rather than carefully considering the statement, whereas others may simply grow tired of responding to all those statements and start picking answers at random.

psychosexual stages

five stages of personality development proposed by Freud and tied to the sexual development of the child.

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