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Unit 1 Quizlet Study Guide
Terms in this set (51)
Contains cell DNA
Organism whose cells contain nucleus. More complex and large. Contains organelles.
Unicellular organism lacking a nucleus. Generally smaller and simpler organisms.
The process in which cells develop in different ways to preform tasks.
Group of similar cell that do the same particular function.
Group of tissues that work to preform related functions.
Group of organs that work togethet to do something specific.
Regulates what enters and leaves the cell. Made of phospholipid cells.
A thick jelly-like substance filling the space between the cell membrane and nucleus, the watery substance component is the cytosol which includes ions and soluble macromolucles.
Seperates DNA from the rest of cell.
Responible of assembly of ribosomes. Inside the nucleus.
Responible for synthesizing proteins and are attaches to the cell membrane.
Assembles and transports some proteins, called rough because of Ribosomes
Contains enzyme that synthesize lipids and transports materials throughout the cell.
Proteins are labeled and packaged out of the cell.
Take energy from food, create high-energy molecules called ATP.
A mesh like network to support cells. Two types are microtubules and microfilaments.
Small sacs filled with digestive enzymes, also kills invading bacteria and foreign matter.
Store materials, plant cells have a single central vacuole.
Provides support and protection for cell. Not in animal cells.
Use photosynthesis to create energy rich.
Holds materials,water and pigments. (Plant cell only)
The exoskeleton of a cell and moves nutrients thought the cell.
When particles move from high to low concentration.
When concentration are the same inside and out.
The movement of water across a selective permeable membrane.
The cell helps the diffusion of a substance that wouldn't be able I cross the membrane on its own. Use protein channels/pumps. It is an example of passive transport.
More concentration on outside and less concentration on the inside. Cell solves this be losing water cause the cell to shrink. (Think of the E and R in the word to remember smaller)
Less concentration on outside and more concentration on the inside. Solved by adding water causing the cell to swell. (Think o as in overflow)
The cell membrane moves materials against the concentration. Aka, if forces water or materials to move.
The normal transport of water and materials.
Material moving into a cell.
Material moving out of a cell.
Engulfing particles and bringing them in the cell. (Cell eating)
Bring water into the cell. (Cell drinking)
Organisms that get energy from foods they eat.
Organisms that produce their own food.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
The chemical compound cells use to store and release energy. Contains a Adenine, Ribose and Phosphate Group. ATP is needed for Active Transport, Making Proteins and Moving Organelles.
Converts light energy into sugar. Provides chemical energy. Occurs in plant leaves. Provides a base for all food chains. Waste from this process is oxygen.
-Dependent of photons
-Takes place in chloroplasts and inside of the chloroplast in the thylakoid.
-Reaction splits water into two e- molecules.(e- are high energy electrons) and H+(Hydrogen Ion).
-Oxygen is waste product.
-Does not require photons
-Nicknamed "Dark Reaction" until proved that didn't make sense.
-Produces usable energy in a series of reactions
-Requires products of light reaction.
-Produces Sugar (Glucose).
Main pigment in plants. The two types in plants are Chlorophyll A and Chlorophyll B. Chlorophyll does not absorb green.
Helps to absorb light for photosynthesis and absorb excess light which might damage Chlorophyll. Ex. Carotenes and Xanthophyll.
Photosynthetic membrane. Thylakoids are arranged in stacks.
Made up of pigments to collect light.
Breaks down glucose and releases energy.
Occurs in cell cytoplasm.
Outputs 2 Pyruvic Acid molecules. 4 ATP- Initial investment of 2 ATP. 2 NAD+ converted to high energy 2 NADH.
Lactic Acid Fermentation
Human muscles cells switch to lactic acid fermentation when O2 is scarce. Lactate accumulates and is slowly carried to liver and converted back into Pyrovate when O2 is available.
Occurs in the Matrix. Formula: Pyruvic Acid + ADP + NAD+ + FAD> CO2 + ATP + NADH + FADH2.
One Pyruvic Acid is 4 NADH, 1 FADH2, and 1 ATP.
Does not require oxygen yet the process cannot take place if it is not present.
Uses the Krebs Cycle generated e- stored in the NADH and the FADH2 carriers to convert ADP into ATP. Initially gives away ADP and a phosphate which combine into ATP and also initially gives Hydrogen Ions (H+) which combines with O2 to make H2O.
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