109 terms

SCC Microbiology test #3

STUDY
PLAY
Genetics
the study of what genes are, how they carry information, how information is expressed, and how genes are replicated:
Gene
A segment of DNA that encodes a functional product, usually a protein:
Chromosomes
Structure containing DNA that physically carries hereditary information; Hint (they contain genes)
Genome
All the genetic infromation in a cell
Genomics
the molecular study of genomes
Genotype
The genes of an organism
Phenotype
Physical expression of the gene
Positive (direct) selection
detects mutant cells because they grow or appear different
negitive (indirect) selection
detects mutant cells because they do not grow
Conjugative plasmid
Carries genes for sex pili and transfer of the plasmid
R Factors
Encode antibiotic resistance
Biotechnology
The use of microorganisms, cells, or cell components to make a product. (Foods, antibiotics, vitamins, and enzymes)
Recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology
Insertion or modificaiton of genes to produce desired proteins
Vector
Self replication DNA used to carry the desired gene to a new cell
Clone
Population of cells arising from one cell, each carries the new gene
Mutation
A perminate change in DNA
Site-directed mutagenesis
Change a specific DNA code to change a protein
Restriction Enzymes
Cut's specific sequences of DNA
Genomic libraries
are made of pieces of an entire genome stored in plasmids or phages
Complementary DNA (cDNA)
is made from mRNA by reverse transcriptase
Gene therapy
to replace defective or missing genes
Real-time PCR
Newly made DNA tagged with a fluorescent dye; the levels of fluorescence can be measured after every PCR cycle
Reverse-transcription (RT-PCR)
Reverse transcriptase makes DNA from viral RNA or mRNA
Phytophthora infestans
Fatal alga that infects potato crops.
Fungi
Kingdom: Fungi
Nutritional type: Chemoheterotroph
Food Acquisition Method: Absorptive
Characteristic Features: Sexual & Asexual (reproduction)
Algae
Kingdom: Protist
Nutritional type: Photoautotroph
Food Acquisition Method: Diffusion
Characteristic Features: Pigments
Protozoa
Kingdom: Protist
Nutritional Type: Chemoheterotroph
Food Acquisition Method: Absorptive; ingestive
Characteristic Features: Motility; some form cysts
Helminths
Kingdom: Amimalia
Nutritional Type: Chemoheterotroph
Food Acquistion Method: Ingestive; absorptive
Characteristic Features: Elaborate life cycles
The fungal ________ consist of ________; a mass of hyphae is a _________.
thallus, hyphae, myscelium
Zygomycota
Produce sporangiospores and zygospores
-Rhizopus, Mucor (opportunistic, systemic mycoses, deep within the body)
Anamorphs
Produce asexual spores only
-Source of penicillium
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Bread, Wine, HBV vaccine
Nonsense codons (STOP)
UAA, UAG, UGA
Trichoderma
Cellulase
Taxomyces
Taxol
Entomophage
Biocontrol
Paecilomyces
Kills termites
Systemic mycoses (Fungal Disease)
Deep within the body
Subcutaneous mycoses (Fungal Disease)
Beneath the skin
Cutaneous mycoses (Fungal Disease)
Affect hair, skin, and nails
Superficial mycoses (Fungal Disease)
Localized, e.g., hair shafts
Opportunistic mycoses (Fungal Disease)
Caused by normal microbiota or environmental fungi
Cell type for Fungi:
Cell type for Bacteria:
Eukaryote
Prokaryote
Cell wall for Fungi:
Cell wall for Bacteria:
Chitin
Peptidoglycan
Phaeophyta
Brown algae (kelp)
Harvested for algin
Rhodophyta
Red algae
Cellulose cell walls
Harvested for agar and carrageenan
Chlorophyta
Green algae
Give'srise to plants
Diatoms
Unicellular
Pectin and silica cell walls
Formed oil
Produce domoic acid
Dinoflagellates
Has cellulose in plasma membrane
Unicellular
Neurotoxins cause paralytic shellfish poisoning
(RED TIDES)
Oomycota
Are water molds
Produce zoospores
Are decomposers and plant parasites
Thallus
Means "body"
Hyphae
A long fillament of cells that make up the Mycelium
Mycelium
A mass of hyphae
Yeast
Unicellular Fungi
Fission yeast
divide symetrically
Budding yeast
divide asymetrically
Mycology
Study of fungi
Archaezoa
Multiple Flagella
Giardia lamblia
Trichomonas vaginalis (no cyst stage)
Microspora
Nonmotile
Intracellular parasites
Nosema- associated with chronic diarrhea and keratoconjunctivitis most notable in AIDS patients
Amoebozoa
Move by pseudopods
Entamoeba amoebic dysentery (montazoma's revenge)
Can grown in tap water and can infect the cornea and cause blindness
Apicomplexa
Nonmotile
Intracellular parasite
Examples: Plasmodium, Babesia, Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, Toxoplasma
Apicomplexa:
Plasmodium (malaria)
effects 10% of the worlds population and is spread by mosquito bites
Apicomplexa;
Babesia
Is a blood parasite, gives fever and anemia inimmunosuppressed people, Transmitted by mosquito
Apicomplexa:
Cryptosporidium
most frequent of recreational waterborne diarrhea, reportable infection
Apicomplexa:
Cyclospora
responsible for 300 cases of diarrhea associated with snow peas
Apicomplexa:
Toxoplasma
Cat feces; dangerous to pregnant women; congenital infections in utero
Spores of Fungi:
Spores of Bacteria:
Sexual and asexual reproductive spores
Endospores (not for reproduction) some asexual
Lichens
Mutualistic combination of alga (or cynobacteria) and fungus
Oomycota
P. Ramorum
Causes sudden oak death
Ciliates
Move by cilia
Complex Cells
Euglenozoa
Move by flagella
Euglenoids
- Photoautotrophs
Euglenoza:
Trypanosoma spp.
Sleeping sickness transmitted by tsetse fly
Euglenoza:
Chagas disease
Transmitted by "kissing bug"
Scolex
Skull/head of a tape worm
Proglottid
Each segment of a tapeworm
Viral capsid
Viral nucleic acid
Two parts that every virus has
Monoecious (hermaphroditic)
Male and female reproductive systems in one animal
Dioecious
Separate male and female
Nematodes
Know as "Round worm"
Gram Scotch tape test
How to remove pin worms
Virion
A virus particle
Viral capsid
the protein coat surrounding the nucleic acid
Viral Structure
Contain either DNA or RNA (nvr both), and the nucleic acid may be single or double stranded, linear or circular, or divided into several separate molecules
Virus
Submicroscopic obligate intracellular parasite
Naked Virus
A virus that lacks an envelope
Host range
refers to the different kinds of organisms it can infect
Specificity
refers to the specific kinds of cells the virus can infect
Inclusion bodies
In infected cells, frequently areas of virus assembly--their intracellular location and appearance are constant for a particular virus
Bacteriophages
the easiest way to grow viruses
Plaque method
mixes bacteriophages with host bacteria and nutrient agar
Viral multiplication
For a virus to multiply, it must invade a host cell and direct the host's metabolic machinery to produce viral enzymes and components.
Lytic cycle
During this cycle a phage causes the lysis and death of a host cell
Lysogenic cycle
During this cycle prophage DNA is incorporated in host DNA
Maturation
Nucleic acid and capsid proteins assemble
Latent Viral infection
A latent viral infection is one in which the virus remains in the host cell for long periods without producing an infection (Cold sores, Shingles)
Teratogens
An agent that induces defects during embryonic development (Rubella, Cytomegaloviruses, Herpes)
Prions
Infectious proteins first discovered in the 1980's
Viroids
Infectious pieces of RNA
Rubella
Transmitted by the respiratory route
Red rash, light fever
Can affect a fetus during pregnancy
Causes stillbirth, deafness, and eye cataracts.
Vaccination is the MMR vaccine
Measles (Rubeola)
Transmitted by the respiratory route
Koplik's spots appear on the oral mucosa
Causes Photofobia
Vaccination is the MMR vaccine
Chickenpox
Transmitted by respiratory route
Causes vesicular rash
After chickinpox, the virus can remain latent in nerve cells and subsequently activate as shingles
Shingles
(Herpes zoster) characterized by a vesicular rash along the affected cutaneous sensory nerve
Can not have this disease without having Chickinpox
Herpes Simplex 1 (HSV-1)
Results in cold sores
Virus remains latent in nerve cell and can recur
No cure exists
Permanent houseguest
Herpetic whitlow
nail infection
Smallpox (variola)
Smallpox has been eradicated as a result of vaccination efforts by the World Health Organization
Warts (papillomas)
Benign skin growths
Transmitted by contact with contaminated surfaces and infected individuals
Fifth disease (erythema infectiosum)
"slapped cheek" facial rash
Infection leads to immunity
Named derived from a 1905 list of skin rash diseases
Roseola
Symptoms include high fever, followed by a rash
Recovery leads to immunity
Molluscum contagiosum
Small pale, firm, pear like masses appear on skin
Clears within 2 to 12 months without complications or treatment
Transmitted by direct contact with fomites