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Flash cards made from pages 43 to 50 of the 5 steps to a 5 AP Psychology Test Prep Book


the science of behavior and mental processes


seeing mind and body as different aspects of the same thing


seeing the mind and body as two different things that interact

nature-nurture controversy

the extent to which behavior results from heredity or experience.

school of structuralism

early psychology perspective that emphasized units of consciousness and identification of elements of thoughts using introspection

G. Stanley Hall

brought introspection to his lab at Johns Hopkins University in the U.S.; first president of the American Psychological Association

Edward Titchener

studied elements of consciousness at his Cornell University lab

Margaret Floy Washburn

first woman to complete her P.h. D. in psychology

school of functionalism

early psychological perspective concerned with how an organism uses its perception abilities to adapt to its environment

William James

wrote Principles of Psychology

Mary Whiton Calkins

first women president of the American Psychological Association

behavioral approach

psychological perspective concerned with behavior reactions to stimuli; learning as a result of experience

Ivan Pavlov

known for classical conditioning of dogs

John Watson

known for experiments in classical aversive conditioning

B.F. Skinner

known for experiment in operant conditioning

psychoanalytic approach

psychological perspective concerned with how unconscious instincts, conflicts, motives and defense influence behavior

Sigmund Freud

"father of psychoanalysis"

humanistic approach

psychological perspective concerned with individual potential for growth and the role of unique perceptions in growth toward one's potential

biological approach

psychological perspective concerned with physiological and bio-chemical factors that determine behavior and mental processes

cognitive approach

psychological perspective concerned with how we receive, store, and process information; thin/reason; and use language

Jean Piaget

studied cognitive development in children

evolutionary approach

psychological perspective concerned with how natural selection favored behaviors that contributed to the spread of our ancestors genes; evolutionary psychologists take a Darwinian approach to the study of human behavior

sociocultural approach

psychological perspective concerned with how cultural difference affect behavior


use of techniques and idea from a variety oa approaches

clinical psychologists

these people evaluate and treat mental emotional and behavioral disorders

counseling psychologists

these people help people adopt to change or make changes in their lifestyle

developmental psychologists

these people study psychological development throughout the lifespan

educational psychologists

these people focus on how effective teaching and learning take place

engineering psychologists

these people do research on how people function best with machines

experimental psychologists

these people do research to add new knowledge to the field of psychology

forensic psychologists

these people apply psychological principles to legal issues

health psychologists

these people concentrate on biological, psychological and social factors involved in health and illness

industrial psychologists

these people aim to improve productivity and the quality of work life by applying psychological principles and methods to the workplace


these people explore the relationships between the brain/nervous system and behavior

personality psychologists

these people focus on traits, attitudes, and goals of the individual

rehabilitation psychologists

these people help clients with mental retardation, developmental disabilities and disabilities resulting from stroke of accidents adapt to their situation

school psychologists

these people assess and counsel students, consult with educations and parents, and perform behavioral intervention when necessary

social psychologists

these people focus on how a person's mental life and behavior are shaped by interactions with other people

Wilhelm Wundt

the general credited founder of scientific psychological behavior he set up a laboratory in 1879 for research

ABCs of behavior

what behavioral psychologists analyze. Namely, the antecedent, behavior and consequences of any event.

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