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40 terms

Chapter 5 - History and Approaches

Flash cards made from pages 43 to 50 of the 5 steps to a 5 AP Psychology Test Prep Book
STUDY
PLAY
psychology
the science of behavior and mental processes
monism
seeing mind and body as different aspects of the same thing
dualism
seeing the mind and body as two different things that interact
nature-nurture controversy
the extent to which behavior results from heredity or experience.
school of structuralism
early psychology perspective that emphasized units of consciousness and identification of elements of thoughts using introspection
G. Stanley Hall
brought introspection to his lab at Johns Hopkins University in the U.S.; first president of the American Psychological Association
Edward Titchener
studied elements of consciousness at his Cornell University lab
Margaret Floy Washburn
first woman to complete her P.h. D. in psychology
school of functionalism
early psychological perspective concerned with how an organism uses its perception abilities to adapt to its environment
William James
wrote Principles of Psychology
Mary Whiton Calkins
first women president of the American Psychological Association
behavioral approach
psychological perspective concerned with behavior reactions to stimuli; learning as a result of experience
Ivan Pavlov
known for classical conditioning of dogs
John Watson
known for experiments in classical aversive conditioning
B.F. Skinner
known for experiment in operant conditioning
psychoanalytic approach
psychological perspective concerned with how unconscious instincts, conflicts, motives and defense influence behavior
Sigmund Freud
"father of psychoanalysis"
humanistic approach
psychological perspective concerned with individual potential for growth and the role of unique perceptions in growth toward one's potential
biological approach
psychological perspective concerned with physiological and bio-chemical factors that determine behavior and mental processes
cognitive approach
psychological perspective concerned with how we receive, store, and process information; thin/reason; and use language
Jean Piaget
studied cognitive development in children
evolutionary approach
psychological perspective concerned with how natural selection favored behaviors that contributed to the spread of our ancestors genes; evolutionary psychologists take a Darwinian approach to the study of human behavior
sociocultural approach
psychological perspective concerned with how cultural difference affect behavior
eclectic
use of techniques and idea from a variety oa approaches
clinical psychologists
these people evaluate and treat mental emotional and behavioral disorders
counseling psychologists
these people help people adopt to change or make changes in their lifestyle
developmental psychologists
these people study psychological development throughout the lifespan
educational psychologists
these people focus on how effective teaching and learning take place
engineering psychologists
these people do research on how people function best with machines
experimental psychologists
these people do research to add new knowledge to the field of psychology
forensic psychologists
these people apply psychological principles to legal issues
health psychologists
these people concentrate on biological, psychological and social factors involved in health and illness
industrial psychologists
these people aim to improve productivity and the quality of work life by applying psychological principles and methods to the workplace
neuropsychologists
these people explore the relationships between the brain/nervous system and behavior
personality psychologists
these people focus on traits, attitudes, and goals of the individual
rehabilitation psychologists
these people help clients with mental retardation, developmental disabilities and disabilities resulting from stroke of accidents adapt to their situation
school psychologists
these people assess and counsel students, consult with educations and parents, and perform behavioral intervention when necessary
social psychologists
these people focus on how a person's mental life and behavior are shaped by interactions with other people
Wilhelm Wundt
the general credited founder of scientific psychological behavior he set up a laboratory in 1879 for research
ABCs of behavior
what behavioral psychologists analyze. Namely, the antecedent, behavior and consequences of any event.