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Which of the following is not part of the upper respiratory system?


The conducting zone does NOT act to

Does none of the above

The nose connects with the pharynx through the


Which of the following is a passageway for air, food and water?


The opening to the pharynx from the mouth is called


This structure prevents food or water from entering the trachea.


During swallowing, which structure rises?


These are triangular pieces of mostly hyaline cartilage located at the posterior and superior border of the cricoid cartilage.

Arytenoids cartilage

Pitch is controlled by

Tension of the vocal chords

This is located anterior to the esophagus and carries air to the bronchi.


This is the primary gas exchange site.


Which of the below tissues maintains open airways in the lower respiratory system?

hyaline cartilage

Which of the below tissues provides the functions of the inner layer of the conducting organs?

ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells

The point where the trachea divides into right and left primary bronchi is a ridge called


Which of the below tissues forms the exchange surfaces of the alveolus?

simple squamous epithelium

These are cells of the alveoli that produce surfactant.

Type II alveolar cells

This is direction of diffusion of gases at capillaries near systemic cells.

Oxygen out of blood , Carbon dioxide into blood

This is direction of diffusion of gases at the alveoli of the lungs.

Oxygen into blood , Carbon dioxide out of blood

Exhalation begins when

Inspiratory muscles relax

This means the lungs and the chest wall expand easily.

High compliance

The conducting airways with the air that does not undergo respiratory exchange are known as the

Respiratory dead space

This is the sum of the residual and the expiratory reserve volume.

Functional residual capacity

Which of the following is not a factor that the rate of pulmonary and systemic gas exchange depends on.

Force of contraction of diaphragm

Which is the dominant method of carbon dioxide transport?

Dissolved in plasma as bicarbonate ions

When blood pH drops then the amount of oxyhemoglobin _______ and oxygen delivery to the tissue cells ________________.

Decreases, increases

Which is a factor that does NOT affect hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen?

Respiratory rate

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