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physics 1 review (2015)
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Gravity
Terms in this set (119)
a vector is a quantity that has__.
magnitude and direction
when representing velocity as a vector__
-the direction of the arrow shows the direction of motion
-the length of arrow is drawn to suitable scale
-the length of the arrow represents the magnitude of the speed
a scalar is a quantity that has only__.
magnitude
in order to find the components of a resultant vector, you should__
-calculate the sine of the angle multiplied by the magnitude for the y
-draw the vector(s) with correct magnitude & orientation
-calculate the cosine of the angle multiplied by the magnitude for the x
the horizontal component of a projectiles velocity is independent of __.
the vertical component of its velocity
at the instant a ball is thrown horizontally with a large force, an identical ball is dropped from the same height. Which ball hits the ground first?
neither- they both hit the ground at the same time
at what part of the path does a projectile have minimum speed in the vertical direction?
at the top of its path
a cannonball is launched from the ground at an angle of 30 degrees above the horizontal and a speed of 20 m/s, Ideally (no air resistance) the ball will land on the ground with a speed of__.
20 m/s
an object is dropped and falls freely to the ground with an acceleration of 9.8 m/s2. If it is thrown upward at an angle instead, its acceleration would be__
9.8 m/s2 downward
what is the resultant displacement of a man who walked 4 meters east and then 3 meters north?
5 meters
(pythagorean theorem)
the law of inertia states that an object__
-will continue moving at the same velocity unless an outside force acts on it
-will continue moving in a straight line unless an outside force acts on it
-that is not moving will never move unless a force acts on it
-at rest will remain at rest unless acted on by an outside force
the law of inertia applies to__
both moving and nonmoving objects
a sheet of paper can be withdrawn from under a container of milk without toppling it if the paper is jerked quickly. the reason this can be done is that__
the milk carton has inertia
one object has twice as much mass as another object. the first object also has twice as much__
inertia
a 10-N force and a 30-N force act on a object in opposite directions. what is the net force on the object?
20N
friction is a force that always acts__
opposite to the objects motion
which has more mass, a kilogram of feathers or a kilogram of iron
neither- they both have the same mass
how much does 1kg bag of nails weigh?
9.8N
a 10-N force and a 30-N force act in the same direction on an object. what is the net force on the object?
40N
a force can be simply defined as a push or pull (t/f)
true
the SI unit of mass is the newton (t/f)
false (kg)
inertia is the property that every object has; inertia resist changes in an objects state of motion (t/f)
true
the combination of all forces that act on an object is called the net force (t/f)
true
the force that supports the weight of a book lying at rest on a tabletop is called normal force (t/f)
true
whenever an object exerts a force on another object, the second object exerts a force of the same magnitude, but in the opposite direction to that of the first object (t/f)
true (newtons 3rd law)
impulse is defined as the force exerted on an object divided the time it lasts(t/f)
false (multiply)
when two objects collide and completely stick together, the collision is said to be elastic (t/f)
false (inelastic)
when a baseball player follows through when hitting the ball, the contact time with the ball is longer (t/f)
true
if a net force acts on a system, the systems momentum will change
true (Ft=m(delta(v))
any force that causes an object to move in a circular patch is called centripetal force
true
the amount of potential energy an object has depends on the path taken to get to a certain height
false
energy is changed from one form to another with no net loss or gain
true
a person weighs 500N. what is the mass of the person?
51.02kg
accelerations are produced by__
forces
(a=f/m)
how does acceleration of an object change in relation to its mass? it is __
inversely proportional
a girl pulls on a 10kg wagon with a constant net force of 30N. what is the wagons acceleration?
3.0m/s2
(a=30/10)
aunt minnie throws a rock downward, and air resistance is negligible. the acceleration of the rock compared to being dropped is__
the same
(-9.8m/s2)
if the force acting on a cart doubles, what happens to the carts acceleration?
it doubles
suppose a cart is being moved by a force. if suddenly a load is dumped into the car so that the mass doubles, what happens to the carts acceleration?
it halves
a 10-N falling object encounters 4N of air resistance. The magnitude of the net force on the object is __
6N
a car has a mass of 1000kg and accelerates at 2 m/s2. what is the magnitude of the force acting on the car?
2000
(1000*2)=m
a tow truck exerts a force of 3000N on a car, accelerating it at 2 m/s2. what is the mass of the car?
1500kg
(3000/2=m)
a high school student hits a nail with a hammer. during the collision there is a force__
on the nail and also on the hammer
a player hits a ball with a bat. the nation force is the impact of the bat against the ball. what is the reaction to this force?
the force of the ball against the bat
the momentum of an object is defined as the objects__
mass times its velocity
which has more momentum, a large true moving at 30mph or a small truck moving at 30mph
the large truck
compared to a sports car moving at 30mph, the same sports car moving at 60mph has__
twice as much momentum
if the momentum of an object changed and its mass remains constant,__
-it is accelerating (or decelerating)
-there is a force acting on it
-its velocity is changing
in order to increase the final momentum of a golfball, we could__
-increase the force acting on it
-follow through when hitting the ball
-increase the time of contact with the ball
-swing as hard as possible
the reason airbags are uses in cars is that they__
increase the time of impact in a collision
which of the following has the largest momentum?
-a mack truck parked in a car park
-tightrope walker crossing niagara
-science building at your school
-pickup truck traveling down the highway
-dog running
pickup truck traveling down the highway
a moving freight car runs into an identical car at rest on the track. the cars couple together. compared to the velocity of the first car before the collision, the velocity of the combined cars after the collision is__
smaller
a 2kg is thrown at 3 m/s. what is the balls momentum?
6 m/s
(p=mv)
a 4kg ball has a momentum of 12kg m/s. what is the balls speed?
8 m/s
(v=p/m)
a 8kg blob of clay moving horizontally at 2 m/s hits a 4kg bloc of clay at rest. what is the speed of the two blobs stuck together immediately after the collision?
1.3 m/s
(mv=(m1+m2)v)
(8*2)=12v
a 40kg football player leaps through the air to collide with and tackle a 60kg player heading toward him, also in the air. If the 40kg playing is heading to the right at 7 m/s, and the 60kg player is heading toward the left at 3 m/s, what is the speed and direction of the tangled played?
1 m/s toward the right
((40
7)+(60
-3)=(40+60)vf)
on possible unit of speed is__
-meters per second
-miles per hour
-kilometers per hour
when you look at the speedometer in a moving car, you can see the cars__
instantaneous speed
acceleration is defined as the CHANGE in__
velocity divided by the time interval
in the absence of air resistance, objects fall at a constant__
acceleration
(-9.8m/s2)
a ball tossed vertically upward rises, reaches its highest point, and then falls back to its starting point. during this time the acceleration of the ball is always__
directed downward
(-9.8 m/s2
a ball is thrown straight up. at the top of its path its acceleration is __
about 10 m/s2
if a projectile is fired straight up at a speed of 10 m/s, the total time to return to its starting point is about__
2 seconds
a jet on an aircraft carrier can be launched from 0 to 50 m/s in 2 seconds. what is the acceleration of the jet?
25 m/s
(a=(vf-vi)/t))
a skateboarder starting from rest acceleration down a ramp at 4 m/s2 for 4 seconds. what is the final speed of the skateboarder?
16 m/s
(vf=vi+at)
how much time does a car with an acceleration of 4.0 m/s2 take to go from 10 m/s to 30 m/s?
5s
(t=(vf-vi)/a))
a stone is dropped from a cliff. after it has fallen 40m, what is the stones velocity?
28 m/s
(Vf^2=Vi^2+2ad)
the ability to do work is a definition of __
energy
69. OMIT
OMIT
every is measured in what units>
joules
energy of an object caused by its motion is:
kinetic
when you raise an object away from the earth, the potential energy of the object relative to the earths surface__
increases
network done on an object is equal to:
change in the kinetic energy
conservation of energy states the total amount of energy in an isolated, closed system__
must remain constant
kinetic energy increases by a factor of 9 if the velocity of an object is multiplied by__
3
(3^2=9)
if positive net work is done on an object, the kinetic energy increased causing the object to __
speed up
which of the following are types of potential energy we discussed:
I. gravitational
II. kinetic
III. elastic
IV. work
I. gravitational
the amount of potential energy an object has depends on:
vertical path taken to get to a certain path
a 10kg rock is raised up a 10m cliff.
it takes 980J of energy to get him up there, which is the same as the potential energy he has at the top
(Pe=mgh)
potential energy is the energy an object has because of its__
position
the amount of potential energy possessed by an elevated object is equal to__
the work done in lifting it
(Fd=mgh)
what happens to the energy in a pendulum as it swings back and forth?
potential energy is transformed into kinetic energy and back into potential energy constantly
an object that has linear kinetic energy must:
have a velocity
what is the kinetic energy of a 10,000kg car moving at 10 m/s?
500,000J
(Ke=1/2mv^2)
assuming the law of conservation of mechanical energy holds true. what is the height of a roller coaster if the velocity at the bottom is 10 m/s?
5m
(mgh=1/2mv^2)
a child starts from rest landslides down a waterslide (that is frictionless) a total of 4m. If the child has a mass of 25kg, how fast is the child moving when they splash down?
8.85 m/s
(mgh=1/2mv^2)
calculate the potential energy of a pendulum hanging 1.1meters above the ground with a mass of 1kg
75.5J
(Pe=mgh)
calculate the potential energy at the bottom of the swing of the pendulum
Pe=75.5
distance=1.1 meters above ground
mass= 7.0kg
0J
if a spring in a toy gun has 122J of potential energy when compressed by a toy dart, how much kinetic energy will the toy dart have when the spring gun is fired? The dart has a mass of 0.1kg.
122J
reviews are over. as you walk quickly out of the building, you gave 6600J of kinetic energy. as soon as you hit the parking lot, your speed triples. How much kinetic energy do you now have?
59400 J
(6600=1/2mv^2)
if a car goes around a curve at half the speed, the centripetal force on the car is__
four times as small
(Fc=m(v^2/r)
an object moving with constant speed in a circular path experiences
centripetal acceleration
a merry go round rotates around its center. a child is clinging to a wooden horse attached to the floor of the ride 1 meter from the outer edge. what horizontal force acts on the child?
centripetal force pulls the child toward the center of rotation
assume you have a mass of 50kg and you are 1000m from stratford. if stratford has a mass of 27,000kg, what is your gravitational attraction to it?
9x10^-11
(Fg=Gm1m2/d2)
as a rocket moves away from the earths surface, the rockets weight__
decreases
a ball is whirled around in a circle. what happens to the centripetal acceleration if the velocity is tripled?
it increases by a factor of 9
ac=(v^2/r)
if a string breaks that holds a whirling rock in its circular path, what causes the rock to now move in a straight line path?
inertia
what is the centripetal force that keeps a satellite in orbit above the earth?
the force of gravity
the period of rotation for an object moving in a circular path is:
the time it takes the object to go around once
a space ship is traveling to the moon. at what point is it beyond the the pull of the earths gravitational field?
it is never beyond the pull of the earths gravity
according to newtons law of universal gravitation, the force of gravitational attraction between any two masses is directly proportional to__
the product of the two masses
when a car goes around a curve, what force keeps the car on the road?
the force of friction between the road and tires
(Ff=Fc)
in the universal gravitation equation, the letter "G" stands for:
universal gravitation constant
(6.67x10^-11)
according to newtons law of universal gravitation equation, as the distance between two bodies increases, the force of gravity between the bodies__
decreases
one basic definition of energy is that it is__
the ability to do work
106. OMIT
OMIT
energy and work are both measures in
joules
as an object falls toward earth, the potential energy of the object __ relative to earths surface
decreases
a change in the kinetic energy of an object is equal to the
net work done on the object
(W=delta(Ke))
the total amount of energy in an isolated, closed system
remains constant
if the velocity of an object doubles, the amount of kinetic energy__
quadruples
a rock whirled on the end of a string moves in a circle because
the string continually pulls inward on the rock
a 100kg diver climbs to the top of a 10 m diving board
it takes 9800K of energy to get him up there, which is the same as the potential energy he has at the top
(Pe=mgh)
potential energy is the energy an object has because of its
position
the amount of potential energy possessed by an elevated object is equal to
the work done in lifting it
(Fd=mgh)
as a pendulum swings back and forth__
-potential energy is transformed into kinetic energy
-at the lowest part of its swing, its energy is all kinetic
-at the end points of its swing, its energy is all potential
-kinetic energy is transformed into potential energy
an object that has linear kinetic energy must be
moving
what is the kinetic energy of a 150 kg horses that gallops at 5 m/s?
1875J
(Ke+1/2mv^2)
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