5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Flat and differentiated keratin rich cells which are lost when they reach the surface
- At late stages of tumor progression
- Initial genetic mutation(s) introduced by chemical exposure
- 1. Accumulating mutations that disable the checkpoint system that monitors the length of
2. Acquiring mutations that maintain or activate telomerase activity
3. Acquiring an alternate mechanism to maintain chromosome ends even in the absence
of telomerase activity
- Physically removing them (surgery)
- a The outer layer of the epithelium in the cervix is composed of what?
- b It is the accumulation of mutations over time, in addition to what, are necessary to induce cancerous cells?
- c Cancer cells avoid replicative cell senscence by what three methods?
- d Most cancers are identified when?
- e As long as the undifferentiated and actively dividing cells are confined to the epithelial side of the basal lamina, how can this condition be cured?
5 Multiple choice questions
- What are three examples of malignant Cancers?
- Even for cancers associated with a known external agent, the time of onset is what?
- Decreased stomach cancer is likely due to what?
- The single cell that causes cancer experienced a heritable change that was followed by additional changes in one of its descendents. These changes allowed the cells to do what?
- Hypoxia triggers expression of what?
5 True/False questions
Malignant tumors → What kind of tumors give rise to metastases making the cancer difficult to eliminate?
Epithelial based cancers (carcinomas) → What are the most prevalent cancers?
Metastases → What process makes a 'tumor' a 'cancer'?
Permanent cell-cycle arrest → The layer underneath the basal layer of the cervix is what?
Condroma → What is a malignant cancer arising from connective tissues or muscle cells?