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Psychology Test Questions

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Which perspective is most directly relevant to an understanding of the nature nature issue
behavior genetics
which perspective is most concerned with the unique ways in which individuals interpret their own experiences
cognitive
Dr. Santaniello conducts basic research on how children's moral thinking changes as they grow older. it is most likely that Dr. Santaniello is an ____ psychologist
developmental
which psychological specialists are most likely to be involved in applied research
Industrial/ organizational psychologists
the tendency to over estimate the extent to which others share our own attitudes is known as
the false consensus effect
In order to assess reactions to a proposed tuition hike at her college, Susan sent a questionnaire to every fifteenth person in the college registrar's alphabetical listing of all currently enrolled students. Susan employed the technique of
random sampling
A statistical measure that indicates the extent to which changes in one factor are accompanied by changes in another is called
correlation coefficient
Experimental control is most clearly facilitated by means of
random assignment
In a psychological experiment, the factor that is manipulated by the investigator is called the
independent variable
which measure of central tendency is used to calculate your grade point average
mean
according to Piaget, the ability to think logically about visible and tangible events first develops during the ____ stage
concrete operational
According to Piaget, during the formal operational stage people begin to
Reason abstractly
Lilianne is beginning to develop a fear of strangers and will reach for her mother when she sees someone who is unfamiliar. It is likely that Lilianne is simultaneously
developing a sense of object permanence
Providing children with a safe haven in times of stress contributes most directly to
secure attachment
A critical period is a phase during which
certain events have a particularly strong impact on development
According to Kohlberg morality based on the avoidance of punishment and the attainment of concrete rewards represent an
pre conventional morality
According to Kohlberg, post conventional morality involves
Affirmation of self defined ethical principals
Physical abilities such as muscular strength reaction time sensory keenness and cardiac output reach their peak during
Early adulthood
the minimum amount of stimulation a person needs to detect a stimulus 50 percent of the time is called the
absolute threshold
which theory emphasizes that personal expectations and motivations influence the level of absolute thresholds
signal detection theory
The principle that two stimuli must differ by a constant proportion for their difference to be perceived is known as
Weber's law
When stabilized retinal images of an initially presented word disappear, new words made up of parts of the initial word will subsequently appear and then vanish. this best illustrates the impact of
top down processing
the process by which our sensory systems convert stimulus energies into neural messages is called
Transduction
The human ability to out perform computers in speedily recognizing familiar objects best illustrates the value of
parallel processing
the fact that people who are colorblind to red and green may still see yellow is most easily explained by
The young Helmholtz theory
according to the gate control theory a back massage would most likely reduce your physical aches and pains by causing the
activation of specific neural fibers in your spinal chord
A gestalt is best described as
an organized whole
the perception of an object as distinct from its surroundings is called
the figure ground perception
the visual cliff is a laboratory device for testing ____ in infants
depth perception
retinal disparity refers to
somewhat different images our two eyes receive of the same object
during the course of a nights sleep, people typically spend more time in ____ sleep than in ____ sleep
stage 2; stage 3
three hours after going to sleep, Shoshanna's heart rate increases, her breathing becomes more rapid, and her eyes move rapidly under her close lids. Research suggests that Shoshanna is
dreaming
the human sleep cycle repeats itself about every
90 minutes
Narcolepsy is a disorder involving
periodic uncontrollable attacks of overwhelming sleepiness
Mr. Oates always sleeps restlessly, snorting and gasping throughout the night. it is most likely that Mr. Oates suffers from
sleep Apnea
Researchers are most likely to question the value of hypnosis for
enhancing memory
Which drugs are most likely to be prescribed as tranquilizers
barbiturates
Amphetamines are to ___ as barbiturates are to ___-
stimulants; depressants
What is a psychedelic drug
LSD
The function of dendrites is to
Receive incoming signals from other neurons
In transmitting sensory information to the brain an electrical signal within a single neuron travels from the
dendrites to the cell body to the axon
With regard to the process of neural transmission, a refractory period refers to a time interval in which
positively charged atoms are pumped back outside a neural membrane
The re uptake of a neurotransmitter such as serotonin would involve the re-absorption of serotonin into an
axon terminal
Schizophrenia is most closely linked with excess activity at receptor sites for the neurotransmitter
dopamine
Alzheimer's disease is most closely linked to the loss of neurons that produce
dopamine
Jose has just played a long bruising football game but feels little fatigue or discomfort. His lack of pain is most likely caused by the release of
Endorphins
A drug that mimics the effect of dopamine is called an
agonist
the vast majority of cells in the body's information processing system are
interneurons
information is carried from the central nervous system to the tissues by
motor neurons
Messages are transmitted from your spinal chord to muscles in your hands by the ___ nervous system
peripheral
After discovering that the shadows outside his window were only the trees in the yard, Ralph's blood pressure decreased and his heart bear slowed. these physical reactions were most directly regulated by his
parasympathetic nervous system
Neural networks refer to
functionally interconnected clusters of neurons in the central nervous system
In order to identify which of Lucy's brain areas was most active when she talked, neuroscientists gave her a temporarily radioactive form of glucose and a
PET scan
The part of the brain stem that controls heartbeat and breathing is called the
medulla
the reticular formation is located in the
brain stem
which brain structure receives information from all the senses except smell
thalamus
which components of the limbic system plays an essential role in the formation of new memories
Hippocampus
Which lobes of the brain receive the input that enables you to feel someones scratching your head
parietal
Auditory stimulation is first processed in the ___ lobes
temporal
The occipital lobes are to ___ as the temporal lobes are to ____
Seeing; hearing
The motor cortex is located in the
frontal lobes
the association areas are located in the
cerebral cortex
the part of the left frontal lobe that directs the muscle movements involved in speech is known as
Broca's area
Wernicke's area is located in the left
temporal lobe
the benefits of brain plasticity are most clearly demonstrated in
children who have had a cerebral hemisphere surgically removed
if research suggested that a pregnant mother's use of an artificial sweetener caused harm to the fetus, the artificial sweetener would be considered a
teratogen
the rooting reflex refers to a baby's tendency to
open the mouth in search of a nipple when touched on the cheek
Habituation refers to
decreasing responsiveness to a stimulus to which one is repeatedly exposed
Maturation refers to
biological growth processes that are relatively uninfluenced by experience
Piaget was convinced that the mind of a child
assimilated reality differently than an adult's does
According to Piaget, Schemas are
people's conceptual frameworks for understanding their experiences
interpreting new experiences in terms of existing schemas is called
assimilation
in Pavlov's experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, the UCS was
the presentation of food in the dogs mouth
A child's fear at the sight of a hypodermic needle is a
conditioned response
Researchers condition a flatworm to contract its body to a light by repeatedly pairing the light with electric shock. the stage in which the flatworm's contraction response to light is established and gradually strengthened is called
acquisition
extinction occurs when a ____ is on longer paired with a ____
CS; UCS
Kathleen developed an intense feat of flying 5 years ago when she was in a plane crash. The fact that today she can again fly without distress indicates that her fear has undergone
extinction
toddler's taught to fear speeding cars may also begin to fear speeding trucks and motorcycles. this best illustrates
generalization
Monica's psychotherapist reminds her so much of her own father that she has many of the same mixed emotional reactions to him that she has to her own dad. Her reactions to her therapist best illustrates the importance of
delayed reinforcement
Five year old Tim is emotionally disturbed and has refused to communicate with anyone. to get him to speak, his teacher initially gives him candy for any utterance, then only for a clearly spoken word and finally only for a complete sentence. The teacher has used the method of
Shaping
An event that increases frequency of the behavior that it follows is a
reinforcer
resistance to extinction is most strongly encouraged by _____ reinforcement
intermittent
A fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only after a
specified number of responses have been made
In an effort to remember how to spell Sheryl writes the word 30 times. She is using the technique known as
rehearsal
During her psychology test, Marsha could not remember the meaning of the term "proactive interference" Surprisingly, however, she accurately remembered that the term appeared on the fourth line of a left hand page in her textbook. Her memory of this incidental information is best explained in terms of
automatic processing
the three stage processing model suggests that we register information in ___ before it is ___ into short term memory
sensory; encoded
the ability to learn something without any conscious memory of having learned it suggests the need to distinguish between
explicit and implicit memory
An algorithm is a
methodical step by step procedure for solving problems
the confirmation bias refers to the tendency to
search for information consistent with our preconceptions
the inability to take a new perspective on a problem is called a
fixation
a mental set is most likely to inhibit
creativity
the tendency to think of objects only in terms of their normal uses is called
functional fixedness
the representativeness heuristic refers to our tendency to
judge the likelihood of category membership by how closely an object or event resembles a particular prototype
a televised image of a starving child had a greater impact on Mr. White's perception of the extensiveness of world hunger than did a statistical chart summarizing the tremendous scope of the problem. this suggest that his assessment of the world hunger problem is influenced by
the availability heuristic
Paul and Micheal sell magazine subscriptions by telephone. Paul is paid 1 dollar for every 5 calls he makes, while michael is paid 1 dollar for every subscription he sells regardless of the number of calls he makes. Paul's telephoning is reinforced on a ___ schedule, whereas Michael's is reinforced on a ___ schedule
fixed ration; variable ratio
According to psychoanalytic theory, the part of the personality that strives for immediate gratification of basic drives is the
ID
According to Freud, the personality system that represents our sense of right and wrong and our ideal standards is the
Superego
Elmer wants to be a loving husband but at the same time wants to express his disgust for some of his wife's habits. According to Freud, Elmer's ___ might enable him to partially satisfy both desires
Ego
Two year old Donald frequently refuses to obey his parents because he derives immense pleasure from demonstrating his independence. Freud would have suggested that Donald is going through the ____ stage of development
anal
According to Freud, fixation refers to a difficulty in the process of
Pyschosexual development
An excessive fixation is most likely to contribute to
Regression
Reaction formation refers to the process by which people
Consciously express feelings that are the opposite of unacceptable unconscious impulses
People who cheat on their taxes are especially likely to think many others do as well. This false consensus effect is most similar to Freud's concept of
projection
Factor analysis has been used to identify the most basic
personality traits
the big five trait dimensions were identified by means of
factor analysis
attribution theory was designed to account for
how people explain other's behavior
the fundamental attribution error is likely to lead observers to
praise those who have engaged in acts of heroism
The foot in the door phenomenon refers to the tendency to
comply with a large request if one has previously complied with a small request
after she moved into a high level executive position in the large company for which she worked, Andrea developed more pro business political attitudes. This best illustrates the impact of
role playing
According to Milgram the most fundamental lesson to be learned from his study of obedience is that
even ordinary people who are not usually hostile can become agents of destruction
Social facilitation refers to the tendency to
perform well learned tasks more effectively in the pre scene of others
Deindividuation refers to
A loss of self awareness and self restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
The ill fated decision of President John F kennedy and his advisors to invade Cuba best illustrates the dangers of
groupthink
Sara, a 20 year old college sophomore is very beautiful. Research suggests that she is likely to ____ than less attractive college women
Be perceived as more socially skilled