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Which perspective is most directly relevant to an understanding of the nature nature issue

behavior genetics

which perspective is most concerned with the unique ways in which individuals interpret their own experiences


Dr. Santaniello conducts basic research on how children's moral thinking changes as they grow older. it is most likely that Dr. Santaniello is an ____ psychologist


which psychological specialists are most likely to be involved in applied research

Industrial/ organizational psychologists

the tendency to over estimate the extent to which others share our own attitudes is known as

the false consensus effect

In order to assess reactions to a proposed tuition hike at her college, Susan sent a questionnaire to every fifteenth person in the college registrar's alphabetical listing of all currently enrolled students. Susan employed the technique of

random sampling

A statistical measure that indicates the extent to which changes in one factor are accompanied by changes in another is called

correlation coefficient

Experimental control is most clearly facilitated by means of

random assignment

In a psychological experiment, the factor that is manipulated by the investigator is called the

independent variable

which measure of central tendency is used to calculate your grade point average


according to Piaget, the ability to think logically about visible and tangible events first develops during the ____ stage

concrete operational

According to Piaget, during the formal operational stage people begin to

Reason abstractly

Lilianne is beginning to develop a fear of strangers and will reach for her mother when she sees someone who is unfamiliar. It is likely that Lilianne is simultaneously

developing a sense of object permanence

Providing children with a safe haven in times of stress contributes most directly to

secure attachment

A critical period is a phase during which

certain events have a particularly strong impact on development

According to Kohlberg morality based on the avoidance of punishment and the attainment of concrete rewards represent an

pre conventional morality

According to Kohlberg, post conventional morality involves

Affirmation of self defined ethical principals

Physical abilities such as muscular strength reaction time sensory keenness and cardiac output reach their peak during

Early adulthood

the minimum amount of stimulation a person needs to detect a stimulus 50 percent of the time is called the

absolute threshold

which theory emphasizes that personal expectations and motivations influence the level of absolute thresholds

signal detection theory

The principle that two stimuli must differ by a constant proportion for their difference to be perceived is known as

Weber's law

When stabilized retinal images of an initially presented word disappear, new words made up of parts of the initial word will subsequently appear and then vanish. this best illustrates the impact of

top down processing

the process by which our sensory systems convert stimulus energies into neural messages is called


The human ability to out perform computers in speedily recognizing familiar objects best illustrates the value of

parallel processing

the fact that people who are colorblind to red and green may still see yellow is most easily explained by

The young Helmholtz theory

according to the gate control theory a back massage would most likely reduce your physical aches and pains by causing the

activation of specific neural fibers in your spinal chord

A gestalt is best described as

an organized whole

the perception of an object as distinct from its surroundings is called

the figure ground perception

the visual cliff is a laboratory device for testing ____ in infants

depth perception

retinal disparity refers to

somewhat different images our two eyes receive of the same object

during the course of a nights sleep, people typically spend more time in ____ sleep than in ____ sleep

stage 2; stage 3

three hours after going to sleep, Shoshanna's heart rate increases, her breathing becomes more rapid, and her eyes move rapidly under her close lids. Research suggests that Shoshanna is


the human sleep cycle repeats itself about every

90 minutes

Narcolepsy is a disorder involving

periodic uncontrollable attacks of overwhelming sleepiness

Mr. Oates always sleeps restlessly, snorting and gasping throughout the night. it is most likely that Mr. Oates suffers from

sleep Apnea

Researchers are most likely to question the value of hypnosis for

enhancing memory

Which drugs are most likely to be prescribed as tranquilizers


Amphetamines are to ___ as barbiturates are to ___-

stimulants; depressants

What is a psychedelic drug


The function of dendrites is to

Receive incoming signals from other neurons

In transmitting sensory information to the brain an electrical signal within a single neuron travels from the

dendrites to the cell body to the axon

With regard to the process of neural transmission, a refractory period refers to a time interval in which

positively charged atoms are pumped back outside a neural membrane

The re uptake of a neurotransmitter such as serotonin would involve the re-absorption of serotonin into an

axon terminal

Schizophrenia is most closely linked with excess activity at receptor sites for the neurotransmitter


Alzheimer's disease is most closely linked to the loss of neurons that produce


Jose has just played a long bruising football game but feels little fatigue or discomfort. His lack of pain is most likely caused by the release of


A drug that mimics the effect of dopamine is called an


the vast majority of cells in the body's information processing system are


information is carried from the central nervous system to the tissues by

motor neurons

Messages are transmitted from your spinal chord to muscles in your hands by the ___ nervous system


After discovering that the shadows outside his window were only the trees in the yard, Ralph's blood pressure decreased and his heart bear slowed. these physical reactions were most directly regulated by his

parasympathetic nervous system

Neural networks refer to

functionally interconnected clusters of neurons in the central nervous system

In order to identify which of Lucy's brain areas was most active when she talked, neuroscientists gave her a temporarily radioactive form of glucose and a

PET scan

The part of the brain stem that controls heartbeat and breathing is called the


the reticular formation is located in the

brain stem

which brain structure receives information from all the senses except smell


which components of the limbic system plays an essential role in the formation of new memories


Which lobes of the brain receive the input that enables you to feel someones scratching your head


Auditory stimulation is first processed in the ___ lobes


The occipital lobes are to ___ as the temporal lobes are to ____

Seeing; hearing

The motor cortex is located in the

frontal lobes

the association areas are located in the

cerebral cortex

the part of the left frontal lobe that directs the muscle movements involved in speech is known as

Broca's area

Wernicke's area is located in the left

temporal lobe

the benefits of brain plasticity are most clearly demonstrated in

children who have had a cerebral hemisphere surgically removed

if research suggested that a pregnant mother's use of an artificial sweetener caused harm to the fetus, the artificial sweetener would be considered a


the rooting reflex refers to a baby's tendency to

open the mouth in search of a nipple when touched on the cheek

Habituation refers to

decreasing responsiveness to a stimulus to which one is repeatedly exposed

Maturation refers to

biological growth processes that are relatively uninfluenced by experience

Piaget was convinced that the mind of a child

assimilated reality differently than an adult's does

According to Piaget, Schemas are

people's conceptual frameworks for understanding their experiences

interpreting new experiences in terms of existing schemas is called


in Pavlov's experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, the UCS was

the presentation of food in the dogs mouth

A child's fear at the sight of a hypodermic needle is a

conditioned response

Researchers condition a flatworm to contract its body to a light by repeatedly pairing the light with electric shock. the stage in which the flatworm's contraction response to light is established and gradually strengthened is called


extinction occurs when a ____ is on longer paired with a ____


Kathleen developed an intense feat of flying 5 years ago when she was in a plane crash. The fact that today she can again fly without distress indicates that her fear has undergone


toddler's taught to fear speeding cars may also begin to fear speeding trucks and motorcycles. this best illustrates


Monica's psychotherapist reminds her so much of her own father that she has many of the same mixed emotional reactions to him that she has to her own dad. Her reactions to her therapist best illustrates the importance of

delayed reinforcement

Five year old Tim is emotionally disturbed and has refused to communicate with anyone. to get him to speak, his teacher initially gives him candy for any utterance, then only for a clearly spoken word and finally only for a complete sentence. The teacher has used the method of


An event that increases frequency of the behavior that it follows is a


resistance to extinction is most strongly encouraged by _____ reinforcement


A fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only after a

specified number of responses have been made

In an effort to remember how to spell Sheryl writes the word 30 times. She is using the technique known as


During her psychology test, Marsha could not remember the meaning of the term "proactive interference" Surprisingly, however, she accurately remembered that the term appeared on the fourth line of a left hand page in her textbook. Her memory of this incidental information is best explained in terms of

automatic processing

the three stage processing model suggests that we register information in ___ before it is ___ into short term memory

sensory; encoded

the ability to learn something without any conscious memory of having learned it suggests the need to distinguish between

explicit and implicit memory

An algorithm is a

methodical step by step procedure for solving problems

the confirmation bias refers to the tendency to

search for information consistent with our preconceptions

the inability to take a new perspective on a problem is called a


a mental set is most likely to inhibit


the tendency to think of objects only in terms of their normal uses is called

functional fixedness

the representativeness heuristic refers to our tendency to

judge the likelihood of category membership by how closely an object or event resembles a particular prototype

a televised image of a starving child had a greater impact on Mr. White's perception of the extensiveness of world hunger than did a statistical chart summarizing the tremendous scope of the problem. this suggest that his assessment of the world hunger problem is influenced by

the availability heuristic

Paul and Micheal sell magazine subscriptions by telephone. Paul is paid 1 dollar for every 5 calls he makes, while michael is paid 1 dollar for every subscription he sells regardless of the number of calls he makes. Paul's telephoning is reinforced on a ___ schedule, whereas Michael's is reinforced on a ___ schedule

fixed ration; variable ratio

According to psychoanalytic theory, the part of the personality that strives for immediate gratification of basic drives is the


According to Freud, the personality system that represents our sense of right and wrong and our ideal standards is the


Elmer wants to be a loving husband but at the same time wants to express his disgust for some of his wife's habits. According to Freud, Elmer's ___ might enable him to partially satisfy both desires


Two year old Donald frequently refuses to obey his parents because he derives immense pleasure from demonstrating his independence. Freud would have suggested that Donald is going through the ____ stage of development


According to Freud, fixation refers to a difficulty in the process of

Pyschosexual development

An excessive fixation is most likely to contribute to


Reaction formation refers to the process by which people

Consciously express feelings that are the opposite of unacceptable unconscious impulses

People who cheat on their taxes are especially likely to think many others do as well. This false consensus effect is most similar to Freud's concept of


Factor analysis has been used to identify the most basic

personality traits

the big five trait dimensions were identified by means of

factor analysis

attribution theory was designed to account for

how people explain other's behavior

the fundamental attribution error is likely to lead observers to

praise those who have engaged in acts of heroism

The foot in the door phenomenon refers to the tendency to

comply with a large request if one has previously complied with a small request

after she moved into a high level executive position in the large company for which she worked, Andrea developed more pro business political attitudes. This best illustrates the impact of

role playing

According to Milgram the most fundamental lesson to be learned from his study of obedience is that

even ordinary people who are not usually hostile can become agents of destruction

Social facilitation refers to the tendency to

perform well learned tasks more effectively in the pre scene of others

Deindividuation refers to

A loss of self awareness and self restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity

The ill fated decision of President John F kennedy and his advisors to invade Cuba best illustrates the dangers of


Sara, a 20 year old college sophomore is very beautiful. Research suggests that she is likely to ____ than less attractive college women

Be perceived as more socially skilled

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