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-figurative language and imagery
-stanzas and lines
-emotions and feelings

Rhyming Patterns

The last words of a line will show the rhyming pattern. The pattern is a shown by a set of letters. Each line in the poem must be assigned a letter. Usually you will only have to analyze one stanza.

Types of Figurative Language

Metaphor, simile, symbolism, dialect, irony, personification, hyperbole


Irony is a plot twist. When something unexpected happens in a story.

Verbal Irony

say one thing, mean another

Situational Irony

the situation turns out to be the opposite of what you expect to happen

Dramatic Irony

the reader knows something that the character doesn't know

Making an Inference

make an educated guess based on the facts and details in the text


Time and place in a text. Setting can be determined by looking at season, time of day, time period, landmarks, geographic features.


lesson learned, life lesson, moral of the story, author's commentary

Types if Poems

ballad, narrative poem, sonnet, lyric poem


songlike poem that tells a story, often sad story of betrayal,
death or loss. Usually have a steady simple rhythm with a refrain.

Narrative Poem

poem that tells a story or related events

Lyric Poem

does not tell a story, but expresses the personal feelings of the speaker


14 line lyric poem, (3 quatrains and a couplet is a Shakespearian sonnet) follows strict rules of structure

Comparing & Contrasting Paired Passages

-Tell the differences and similarities between both passages.
-Don't get tripped up on paired passages by looking at the wrong passage for a question.

Non Fiction Passages (particularly Consumer docs.)

-Close Reading
-Know the purpose for reading
-Skim and scan
-Look for diagrams and captions
-Look at the text features
-Preview the questions
-Read the passage


main idea, author's opinion, topic the author is trying to
convince you of.


Identify critical details.

Organizational Patterns

How the text is organized. The way it is written.
Ex. -Numbered list
-Steps in a process
-Bulleted list
-Chronological order
-Cause and effect
-Order of Importance
-Compare and contrast

Features of Advertisements

-Headers and Footers
-Illustrations or Diagrams
-Convince you to buy something - spend money
-Focuses just on the good
-If they say the bad it is in the fine print or goes really fast at the end of the commercial

Purpose of Logo

A logo is a picture that represents a company or product. The logo is designed to grab the readers attention.

Features of Product Labels

The product label gives specific information about the product
Ex. -Warning of the product
-Ingredients or parts
-Origin of product
-Company info.
-Nutritional Value if food

Reading Narrative Passages - (theme, plot, character, setting, author's
influence, vocab in context)

1. If the paragraphs aren't numbered, number them.
2. Write SWBS (Somebody, Wanted, But, So)
3. Identify how many questions are connected to the passage.
More than 5 questions, don't preview the questions. Two or
three questions. Try to answer them by looking back into the
4. Read each paragraph. As you read, write a few word summary
for each paragraph.
5. You are ready to answer the questions. Use your test taking


opposition in a work of drama or fiction between characters or forces (especially an opposition that motivates the development of the plot)


a smaller plot

Analyzing Characters

look at how the character changes

Writer's Point of View, Attitude or Personal Perspective

Consider the theme of the story. There may be two or three themes present in the text. Any one of those themes will give you an idea of the author's point of view, attitude and beliefs.

Vocabulary in Context

Look for context clues and Latin roots.

Parallel Structures

Stay with the pattern of the verbs or the lists in the series. For
o To run, to walk and jumping is not parallel because
some of the verbs are in the infinitive form and one
verb is in the present participle form.
o To run, to walk, and to jump is parallel because all the
verbs are in the same form.

Punctuation and Capitalization

-Proper nouns, beginning of sentences, I, certain words in titles
-Commas in regards to compound sentences and coordinating conjunction.

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