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before spermatozoa can be produced certain endrocine requirements must be met

adequate GnRH must be released from Hypothalamus, FSH and LH secretion from the anterior lobe of the pituitary, secretion of gonadal steriods

males do not have a __________

surge centre

male releases ______ in frequent, intermittent bursts that occur throughout the day and night


The bursts of GnRH last for a few minutes and cause discharges of _____ that follow GnRH episode


LH episodes last from __________ and occur from 4 to more than 8 times every 24hours


concentrations of _____ are lower than ____ but pulses are longer because of the relatively constant secretion of inhibin and longer half-life of FSH


LH acts on the ______ cells within the testes


LH acts on the legdig cells within the testes are analogous to the _________ cells of the antral follicle

theca interna

LH stimulates the legdig cells to produce ___________ most of which is converted to ______________

progesterone, testosterone

are the male equivalent of the theca interna cells

legdig cells

are the male equivalent of the granulosa cells

sertoli cells

___________ convert testosterone to estradiol, function poorly understood and exert a neg feedback on the hypothalamus

sertoli cells

takes place within the seminiferous tubules


the goals of spermatogenesis are to

provide the male with a continual supply of male gametes, provide genetic diversity, provide billions of sperm each day to max reproduction by both natural and AI service, provide a site where germ cells are not destroyed by the male's immune system

provide the male with a continual supply of male gametes, provide genetic diversity, provide billions of sperm each day to max reproduction by both natural and AI service, provide a site where germ cells are not destroyed by the male's immune system

the goals of spermatogenesis

Spermatogenesis can be divided into 3 phases

proliferation, meiotic phase, differentiation

cell division (mitosis)


produce haploid spermatids (meiosis)

meiotic phase

change from a spherical undifferentiated spermatid into a spermatozoon containing a head, flagellum and principal piece


role of the spermatozoom is to deliver the males genetic material during


differentiation consists of: 4

golgi phase, cap phase, acrosomal phase, maturation phase

= acrosomic vesicle formation

golgi phase

first steps in the development of the acrosome, very early flagellum development

golgi phase

= acrosomic vesicle forming over nucleus

cap phase

a cap forms over the anterior portion of the nucleus, flagellum begins to project towards the lumen of the seminiferous tubule

cap phase

continues to spread and covers 2/3s of the anterior nucleus

acrosomal phase

nucleus begins to elongate, manchette attaches to nucleus, spermatids are embedded in the sertoli cells

acrosomal phase

post nuclear cap develops, mitochandria migrate and cluster around flagellum, spermatozoa are released into the lumen of hte seminiferous tubule

maturation phase

Front 2/3s are covered by the acrosome, contains enzymes

head of spermatozoa

during fertilization the acrosome undergoes a reaction that allows the sperm to penetrate the

zona pellucida

head + tail


nucleus + acrosome + postnuclear cap


middle piece + principal piece + terminal piece


male produces _________ continually and uniformly throughout his reproductive life



breeding soundness evaluation

Male potential fertility is determined by 4

his sperm producing capacity, viability of his spermatozoa, # of morphologically abnormal spermatozoa that he ejaculates, # of functionally normal spermatozoa that he ejaculates

_________ is a good estimator of sperm producing ability

testicular size

to determine a males sperm producing capability, it is necessary to collect

several semen samples over time

measuring the _________ of both testes is a good estimate of sperm producing capacity


the ability to swim progressively forward


spermatozoa are lost from the female tract by 2

phagocytosis (uterus) , retrograde transport

________ stimulates neutrophil recruitment in the female tract


sperm transport 2

rapid transport phase and sustained transport phase

high _______ levels stimulate muscularis contractions


________ in semen cause increased tone and motility of the uterus and/or the oviduct, enables movement of both semen and uterine fluids


low viscosity mucus that allows spermatozoa to swim


thick mucus that washes spermatozoa out of the cervix


cervix may act as a _____ that eliminates non-motile spermatozoa


spermatozoa must reside in the female tract before they acquire fertility, process whereby spermatozoa acquire fertility in the female reproduction tract



hyperactive motility, binding to the zona pellucida, acrosome reaction

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