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89 terms

Study Guide: Unit 3

STUDY
PLAY
atmosphere
- Gases are densest at sea level and thin rapidly upward from surface
- Humans are designed to live at the bottom of this "ocean" of air
weather
Temporary State of the atmosphere
climate
Average of weather conditions in a place or over a long period of time
meteorology
Science of weather (physics of air)
climatology
Study of climate
nitrogen
Makes up 78% of the atmosphere
oxygen
Makes up 21% of the atmosphere
carbon dioxide
...
troposphere
- Closest to surface
- Weather processes occur there (zone of change)
- Clouds and turbulence
- Thickness varies from 3 mi. at poles to 10 mi. at the Equator
in the troposphere, temperature is related to altitude.
- The higher you go, the colder it gets.
- Temperature decreases at a steady rate
called the normal lapse rate.
normal lapse rate
3.5 ℉ 1,000 feet or 6.4 ℃ per 1,000 meters
stratosphere
- located above the troposphere
- Jet planes fly there (less turbulence than in troposphere
- Very cold (60℉ below zero)
jet stream
Located at boundary between warm and cold air
Planes travel in the jet stream to get to destinations quicker.
E -> W = Quicker
W -> E = Slower
ozonosphere (chemosphere)
Contains the ozone layer
ozone layer
- blocks ultraviolet radiation
- protects us against skin cancer
- protects against cataracts
- protects crops
- ozone layer is destroyed by chlorofluorocarbons
iconosphere (thermosphere)
- above ozonosphere (mostly in thermosphere)
- particles are electrically charged (ionized)
- location of Aurora
- AM radio communications
- radio waves bounce off layers in ionosphere
controls of climate
1. Latitude *
2. Altitude (Elevation) *
3. Ocean Currents
4. Land and water distribution
5. Oceans heat and cool more slowly than land areas
6. Mountain barriers
7. Storms
temperature
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insolation
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ultraviolet radiation
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infrared radiation
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greenhouse effect
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thermometers
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Fahrenheit scale
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Celsius (centigrade) scale
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radiation
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conduction
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convection
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advection
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temperature inversion
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daily temperature lag
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seasonal temperature lag
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isotherm
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humidity
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precipitation
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rain and snow gauges
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hygrometer
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psychrometer
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relative humidity
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dew point
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condensation
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evaporation
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radiation fog
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advection fog
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high inversion fog
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evaporation fog
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hygroscopic (condensation) nuclei
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cirrus clouds
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stratus clouds, nimbo stratus
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cumulus clouds, cumulonimbus
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sublimation
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silver iodide
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dry adiabatic rate
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wet adiabatic rate
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convectional precipitation
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orographic precipitation
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rain shadow
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cyclonic precipitation
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frontal precipitation
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pressure
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mercurial barometer
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aneroid barometer
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standard pressure
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Hadley Cell
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isobars
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wind vane
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Beaufort scale
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anemometer
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Coriolis Effect
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doldrums
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trade winds
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horse latitudes
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prevailing westerlies
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polar easterlies
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monsoon
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land and sea breeze
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mountain and valley breeze
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katabatic (gravity) winds
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foehn or chinook winds
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Santa Ana Winds
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Scirocco winds
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cyclone
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anticyclone
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tropical cyclone
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hurricane
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typhoon
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thundershower
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tornado
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climatic classification
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Koeppen
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